Kidney Cancer - Sign and Symptoms
The kidneys are a pair of organs on each side of the spine (spine) in the lower abdomen. Each kidney is about the size of a fist. Attached to the top of each kidney is an adrenal gland. A mass of fatty tissue and an outer layer of fibrous tissue (Gerota's fascia) surrounding the kidneys and adrenal glands.
The kidneys are part of the channel urine (pee). They make urine by removing waste and excess water from the blood. Urine was gathered in a hollow space (renal pelvis) in the middle of each kidney. It flows from the renal pelvis into the bladder through a tube called a ureter. Urine leaves the body through another tube (urethra).
The kidneys also make substances that help control blood pressure and the production of red blood cells.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues form organs.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should die. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
Tumors can be benign or malignant:
* Benign tumors are not cancer:o Benign tumors are rarely life threatening.o Usually, benign tumors can be removed / excluded, and they seldom grow back.o Cells from benign tumors do not invade tissues around them or spread to other parts of the body.* Malignant tumors are cancer:o Malignant tumors are generally more serious than benign tumors. They may be life threatening.o Malignant tumors often can be removed / excluded, but they can grow kebali.o Cells from malignant tumors can invade and damage tissues and organs nearby. Also, cancer cells can spread from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system (lymph nodes). That is how cancer cells spread from the original cancer (primary tumor) to form new tumors in other organs. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.
Several types of cancer can start in the kidney. This article is about renal cell cancer, the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. This type is sometimes called renal adenocarcinoma or hypernephroma. Another type of cancer, transitional cell carcinoma, affects the renal pelvis. He is similar to bladder cancer and is often treated like bladder cancer. Wilms tumor is the most common type of kidney cancer of childhood. He is different from adult kidney cancer and requires different treatment.
When kidney cancer spreads outside the kidney, cancer cells are often found in lymph nodes nearby. Kidney cancer also may spread to the lungs, bones, or liver. And it may spread from one kidney to the other kidney.
When cancer spreads (metastasizes) from its original location to other parts of the body, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the primary tumor. For example, if kidney cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually kidney cancer cells. The disease is metastatic kidney cancer, not lung cancer. He was treated as a kidney cancer, not lung cancer. Doctors sometimes call the new tumor as metastatic disease or disease "remote".At the risk of Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer develops most often in people aged 40 years or older, but no one know the exact causes of this disease. Doctors can seldom explain why one person develops kidney cancer and another does not. However, it is clear that kidney cancer is not contagious. No one can "catch" this disease from others.
Research has shown that people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop kidney cancer. A risk factor is anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease.
Studies have found that risk factors for kidney cancer the following:
* Smoking: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor. Cigarette smokers are two times more likely than nonsmokers to develop kidney cancer. Cigar smoking also may increase the risk of this disease.* Overweight: The people who are overweight have an increased risk of kidney cancer.* High blood pressure: High blood pressure increases the risk of kidney cancer.* Long-term dialysis: Dialysis is a treatment for people who kidneys are not working properly. He issued wastes from the blood. Being on dialysis for many years was a risk factor for kidney cancer.* Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome: VHL is a rare disease that is circulating in some families. It is caused by changes in the VHL gene. An abnormal VHL gene increases the risk of kidney cancer. It also can cause cysts (cysts) or tumors in the eyes, brain, and other parts of the body. Family members of those with this syndrome can get a test to examine the possibility of the abnormal VHL gene. For people with the abnormal VHL gene, doctors may suggest ways to improve the detection of kidney cancer and other diseases before symptoms develop.* Occupation: Some people have a higher risk of getting kidney cancer Because They come in contact with Certain chemicals or substances in Their workplace. Coke oven workers in the iron and steel industry are at risk. Workers exposed to asbestos or cadmium also may be at risk.* Gender: Men are more likely than women diagnosed with kidney cancer. Every year in America, about 20.000 men and 12.000 women learn that they have kidney cancer.
Most people who have these risk factors do not get kidney cancer. On the other hand, most people who get this disease have no risk factors are unknown. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this concern with their doctor. Your doctor may be able to suggest ways to reduce risk and can plan an appropriate schedule for checkups.
Symptoms of Kidney Cancer
Common symptoms of kidney cancer include:
* Blood in the urine (making the urine slightly rusty red or red inside)* Pain in the side that is not lost* A lump or mass on the side or stomach* Losing weight* Fever* Feeling very tired or have an overall feeling of poor health
Most often, these symptoms does not mean cancer. An infection, a cyst, or another problem also could cause similar symptoms. A person with any of these symptoms should visit a doctor so that any problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.Diagnosing Kidney Cancer
If a patient has symptoms that suggest kidney cancer, doctors may perform one or more of the following procedures:
* Physical examination: The doctor checks general signs of health and tests for fever and high blood pressure. Doctors also feel (feeling) the abdomen and waist for tumors.* Urine tests: Urine is checked for blood and other signs of disease.* Blood tests: The lab checks the blood to see how well the kidneys are working. The lab may check the level of some compounds, such as creatinine. A high level of creatinine may mean the kidneys are not doing their job.* Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): The doctor injects dye (dye) into a vein in the arm. The dye travels through the body and collects in the kidneys. The dye makes them visible on x-rays. A series of x-rays then track the dye as it moves through the kidneys to the ureters and bladder. X-rays can show a kidney tumor or other problems.* CT scan (CAT scan): An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of the kidneys. Patients may receive an injection of dye so the kidneys show up clearly in the pictures. A CT scan can show a kidney tumor.* Tests Ultrasound: The ultrasound device uses sound waves that people can not hear. Wave-gelombag bounce off the kidneys, and a computer uses the echoes to create a picture called a sonogram. A solid tumor or cyst on a sonogram.* Biopsy: In some cases, doctors may do a biopsy. A biopsy is the removal of tissue to look for cancer cells. The doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin into the kidney to remove a small amount of tissue. Your doctor may use ultrasound or x-rays to guide the needle. A pathologist uses a microscope to find cancer cells in tissue.* Operation: In most cases, based on the results of CT scans, ultrasound, and x-rays, doctors have enough information to recommend surgery to remove part or all of the kidney. A pathologist makes the final diagnosis by examining tissue under a microscope.Treating Kidney CancerPen-stage-an
To plan the best treatment, doctors need to know the stage (extent) of disease. Staging is based on the size of the tumor, whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body.
Staging may involve imaging tests (imaging) such as an ultrasound scan or a CT scan. Doctors also may use an MRI. For this test, a powerful magnet linked to a computer makes detailed pictures of organs and blood vessels.
Doctors describe kidney cancer by the following stages:
* Stage I is an early stage of kidney cancer. Tumors measuring up to 2 3 / 4 inches (7 centimeters). He is no bigger than a tennis ball. Cancer cells are found only in the kidney.* Stage II is also an early stage of kidney cancer, but tumors measuring more than 2 3 / 4 inches. Cancer cells are found only in the kidney.* Stage III is one of the following: The tumor does not extend beyond the kidney, but cancer cells have spread through the lymphatic system to an adjacent lymph node, or the tumor has invaded the adrenal gland or the layers of fat and fibrous tissue surrounding the kidney, but cancer cells are still not spread beyond the fibrous tissue. Cancer cells may be found in one nearby lymph node; or cancer cells have spread from the kidney to a large blood vessels adjacent. Cancer cells may be found in an adjacent lymph node.* Stage IV is one of the following: Tumr extends beyond the fibrous tissue that surrounds the kidney; or cancer cells are found in more than one nearby lymph node, or the cancer has spread to other places in the body such as the lungs.* The cancer relapse was kaker who have returned (relapse) after treatment. He may return in the kidney or in other parts of the body.
Many people with kidney cancer want to take an active part in making decisions about their medical care. They want to learn all they can about their disease and their treatment choices. However, shock (shock) and stress after the diagnosis can make it difficult to think of everything that they want to ask the doctor. It is often helpful to make a list of questions before an appointment. To help remember what the doctor says, people may take notes or ask whether they may use a tape recorder. Some also want to have a family member or friend with them when they talk with the doctor - to take part in the discussion, to take notes, or just listen.
Physicians may refer patients to a specialist, or patients may ask for a referral. Specialists who treat kidney cancer include doctors who specialize in diseases of the urinary system (urologists) and doctors who specialize in cancer (medical oncologists and radiation oncologists)
.Getting a second opinion (second opinion)
Before starting treatment, people with kidney cancer may want a second opinion about diagnosis and treatment plan. Some insurance companies require a second opinion; others may be complementary to a second opinion if the patient or doctor requests it.
There are a number of ways to find a doctor for a second opinion:
* Physicians may refer patients to the patient one or more specialists. At cancer centers, several specialists often work together as a team.* Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER, can tell callers about the caller-care centers nearby.* A local or state medical society, a nearby hospital, or a medical school can usually provide the names of specialists.* American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) offers a list of doctors who have met the demands of specific education and training and have passed an exam kespesialisan. User guide (directory) they - Official ABMS Directory of Board Certified Medical Specialists - registering the names of doctors along with their kespesialisan and their educational background. User guide (directory) is available at most public libraries. Also, ABMS offers this information by telephone and on the Internet. Toll-free telephone number is 1-866-ASK-ABMS (1-866-275-2267). Internet address is http://www.abms.org.* NCI provides a helpful fact sheet about how menemuka a doctor called "How to find a doctor or treatment facility if you have cancer". He is available on the Internet at http://cancer.gov/publications.
Preparation for treatment
Treatment depends mainly on the stage of disease and general health and age of the patient. The doctor can describe treatment choices and discuss the expected results. Physicians and patients can work together to develop a treatment plan that matches the patient's purposes.
People do not need to ask all their questions or understand all the answers promptly. They will have other opportunities to ask the doctor to explain things that are not clear and to ask for more information.
Methods of Treatment
People with kidney cancer may have surgery, arterial embolization, radiation therapy, biological therapy, or chemotherapy. Some may have a combination of treatments.
At each stage of disease, people with kidney cancer may have treatment to control pain and other symptoms, to eliminate the side effects of therapy, and to alleviate the emotional issues and practical. This type of treatment is called supportive care, management of symptoms, or treatments that alleviate or relieve. Information on supportive care is available on the NCI website at http://cancer.gov and from NCI's cancer information service at 1-800-4-CANCER.
A patient may want to talk to your doctor about taking part in a clinical trial, a research study of treatment methods are new.Operation
Surgery is the most common treatment for kidney cancer. He is a type of local therapy. He treat cancer in the kidney and the area near the tumor.
An operation to remove the kidney is called a nephrectomy. There are several types of nephrectomies. Type depend especially at the stage of the tumor. The doctor can explain each operation and discuss which is most suitable for patients:
* Radical nephrectomy: Kidney cancer is usually treated with radical nephrectomy. The surgeon removes the entire kidney along with the adrenal gland and some tissue around the kidney. Some lymph nodes in the area may also be removed.* Simple nephrectomy: The surgeon removes only the kidney. Some people with stage I kidney cancer may have a simple nephrectomy.* Partial nephrectomy: The surgeon removes only part of the kidney containing the tumor. These types of operations may be used when a person has only one kidney, or when the cancer affects both kidneys. Also, a person with a small kidney tumor (less than 4 centimeters or three-fourths inch) may have this type of operation.Arterial embolization
Arterial embolization is a type of local therapy that shrinks the tumor. Sometimes it is done before an operation to make surgery easier. When surgery is not possible, embolization may be used to help relieve the symptoms of kidney cancer.
The doctor inserts a narrow tube (catheter) into a blood vessel in the leg. The tube is passed up to the main large vessels (renal arteries) that supply blood to the kidneys. The doctor injects the compound into the blood vessel to block blood flow into the kidney. Obstacles or barriers to prevent the tumor from getting oxygen and other compounds that he needs to grow.
Radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy) is another type of local therapy. He uses high-powered rays to kill cancer cells. It affects cancer cells only treated diarea. A large machine directs radiation at the body. Patients receive care in a hospital or clinic, 5 days a week for several weeks.
A small number of patients have radiation therapy before surgery to shrink the tumor. Some have it after surgery to kill cancer cells that may remain in the area. The people that can not have surgery may have radiation therapy to relieve pain and other problems caused by cancer.
Biological therapy is a type of systemic therapy. He uses compounds that travel through the bloodstream, reach and affect cells throughout the body. Biological therapy uses the body's natural ability (immune system) to fight cancer.
For patients with metastatic kidney cancer, doctors may suggest interferon alpha or interleukin-2 (also called IL-2 or aldesleukin). The body normally produces these substances in small amounts in response to infections and other diseases. For cancer treatment, they are made in the laboratory in large numbers.
Chemotherapy also is a type of systemic therapy. Anticancer drugs enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body. Although useful for many other cancer-Kaner, OBT anticancer drugs have shown limited use against kidney cancer. However, many doctors are studying new drugs and new combinations that might prove more useful.
Side effects Kidney Cancer Treatment
Because treatment may damage cells and tissues healthy, side effects are generally undesirable. These side effects depend mainly on the type and extent of treatment. Side effects probably are not the same for everyone, and they may change from one treatment session to the next. Before treatment starts, the health care team will explain possible side effects and suggest ways to help patients control them.
NCI provides a useful brochures about cancer treatments and cope with side effects, such as Radiation Therapy and You, Chemotherapy and You, and Eating Hints for Cancer Patients-Patients.
Is to take some time to heal after surgery, and the time required for healing is different for each person. Patients are often uncomfortable during the first few days. However, medicine can usually control their pain. Before surgery, patients should discuss the plan for pain relief with your doctor or nurse. After surgery, the doctor can adjust the plan if necessary more remover pain.
It is common to feel tired or weak for a while. Team health nurses observe patients for signs of kidney problems by monitoring the amount of fluid that be drunk patients and the amount of urine produced. They are also watching for signs of bleeding, infection, or issues that require immediate care. Lab tests help the health care team monitor for signs of problems.
If one kidney is removed, the remaining kidney is generally able to carry out the work of both kidneys. However, if the remaining kidney is not working well or if both kidneys are removed, dialysis is necessary to cleanse the blood. For some patients, kidney transplantation may be an option (option). For this procedure, surgeons replace the patient's kidney transplantation with a healthy kidney from a donor.
After arterial embolization, some patients have back pain or develop a fever. Other side effects are nausea and vomiting. These problems soon disappeared.
Side effects from radiation therapy depend mainly on the amount of radiation given and the part of the body being treated. Patients are likely to become very tired during the applicable radiation, especially in the later weeks of treatment. Resting is important, but doctors usually advise patients to try to stay as active as they are.
Radiation therapy to the kidney and adjacent areas may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or discomfort throwing urine. Radiation therapy also may cause a reduction in the number of white blood cells healthy, which helps protect the body against infection. As with addition, the skin in the treated area may sometimes become red, dry, and sensitive. Although side effects from radiation therapy can be distressing, your doctor can usually treat and control them.
Gejal biological therapy may cause flu-like symptoms, such as chills, fever, muscle aches, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Patients also may get a skin rash (skin rash). These problems can be severe, but they disappear after treatment is stopped.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend mainly on specific drugs and the amount received at one time. In general, anticancer drugs affect cells that divide rapidly, especially:
* Blood cells: These cells fight infection, help blood to clot / freezes, and carry oxygen to all parts of the body. When drugs affect blood cells, patients are more likely to get infections, may mememar or bleed easily, and may feel very weak and tired.* Cells in hair roots: Kemoeterapi can cause hair loss. Hair grows back, but sometimes the new hair is slightly different in color and texture.* The cells lining the digestive tract: Chemotherapy can cause poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or twists and mouth and lip sores. Many of these side effects can be controlled with medications.Nutrition
Patients need to eat well during cancer therapy. They need enough calories to maintain a good weight and protein to maintain strength. Good nutrition often helps people with cancer feel better and have more energy.
But eating well can be difficult. Patients may not feel like eating if they are uncomfortable or tired. Also, the side effects of treatment, such as poor appetite, nausea, or vomiting, can be a problem. Some patients find that foods do not taste as good during cancer therapy.
Doctor, dietitian, or other health nurse can suggest ways to maintain a healthy diet. Patients and their families may want to read the brochures the National Cancer Institute on Healthy Eating Hints for Cancer Patients-Patients, which contains many ideas and recipes handy.
Follow-up Treatment For Kidney Cancer
Follow-up care after treatment for kidney cancer is important. Even when the cancer seems to have been fully removed or destroyed, the disease sometimes go back because the cancer cells can live inside the body after treatment. Doctors monitor the healing of people treated for kidney cancer and test the recurrence of cancer. Checkups help ensure that any changes in the health record. The patient may have lab tests, chest x-rays, CT scans, or other tests.
NCI has prepared a brochure for people who have completed their treatment to help answer questions about follow-up care and concern, other concerns.
Support for people with kidney cancer
Living with a serious illness such as kidney cancer is not easy. People with kidney cancer may be concerned about serving their families, keeping their jobs, or continuing daily activities. Concerns-concerns about the treatments and control the side effects, hospitalization, hospital hospitalization, and medication bills are also common. Doctors, nurses, and other members of the health care team can answer questions about treatment, working, or other activities. Met a social worker, counselor, or member of the religious can be beneficial to those who want to talk about their feelings or discuss their concerns-concerns. Often, a social worker can suggest resources for financial aid, transportation (transport), home care, or emotional support.
Support groups can also help. In these groups, patients or their family members meet with other patients or their families to share what they have learned about coping with illness and the effects of treatment. These groups may offer support in private, via telephone, or on the Internet. Patients may want to talk to a member of their health care team about finding a support group.
Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER can provide information to help patients and their families find programs, services, and publications.
Promise of Cancer Research
Doctors across the country are conducting many types of clinical trials-experiment. These are research studies where people take part voluntarily. In clinical trials, doctors are trying new ways to treat kidney cancer. Research has led to advances, and researchers are continually seeking approaches more effective.
Patients who join these studies have their first chance to benefit from treatments that have shown promise in early studies. They also make an important contribution to medical science by helping doctors learn more about the disease. Although clinical trials may expose some of the risks, researchers do all they can to protect their patients.
Researchers are studying surgery, biological therapy, chemotherapy, and combination of these types of treatments. They also combine chemotherapy with new treatments, such as stem cell transplantation. A stem cell transplant allows a patient treated with high doses of drugs. High doses destroy both the cancer cells and normal blood cells in the bone marrow (bone marrow). Then, the patient receives stem cells from a healthy donor. Blood cells emerging from the stem cells were transplanted.
Other approaches also exist in these studies. For example, researchers are studying cancer vaccines that help the immune system for find and destroy cancer cells of the kidney.
Patients who are interested in being part of a clinical trial should talk with their doctor. They may want to read Taking Part in Clinical trials: What you need to know cancer patients. NCI also offers an easy to read brochure called If You Have Cancer ... What You Should Know About Clinical Trial-Trial. NCI publications describe how research studies carried out and explains the potential benefits and their risks.
Monday, June 18, 2012
Kidney Cancer - Sign and Symptoms
Kidney Cancer - Sign and Symptoms