Uterine Cancer - Gynecology Cancer - Sign and Symptoms
Womb (uterus) is part of a woman's reproductive system. He is a hollow organ shaped pear where a baby grows. The content is in the pelvis between the bladder and anus (rectum).
The lower part is narrower than the womb (uterus) is the mouth of the womb (cervix). The middle of the width of the womb is his body, or corpus. Dome-shaped peak which is the fundus. Fallopian tubes protruding from each side of the peak of the womb to the ovaries (ovaries).
The walls contain two layers of tissue possessed. The inner layer is the endometrium. The outer layer is muscle tissue called the myometrium.
In women who are at ages bear children, lining the uterus grows and thickens each month to prepare for pregnancy. If a woman does become pregnant, a layer of thick, blood flowing out of the body through the vagina. This expenditure is called menstruation (menses).
Cancer is a group that many of these related diseases. All cancers begin in cells, the basic unit of life of the body. The cells make tissues, tissues and organs blindly.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells when they are needed by the body. When cells grow old and die, new cells take their place.
Sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old cells do not die when they should die. These extra cells can form a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.Tumors can be benign or malignant:
* Benign tumors are not cancer. Usually, doctors can lift / remove them. Cells from benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. In most cases, benign tumors do not come back after they removed / eliminated. Most important, benign tumors are rarely a threat to life.
Benign conditions of Gynecology
o Fibroids are benign tumors that grow commonly in the uterine muscle. They occur mainly in women at age empatpuluhannya. The women may have many fibroids at the same time. Fibroids do not develop into cancer. When a woman reaches menopause, fibroids is likely to be smaller, and sometimes they disappear.
Usually, fibroids cause no symptoms and require no treatment. However, depending on the size and location, fibroids can cause bleeding, vaginal discharge (vaginal discharge), and frequent urination. Women with these symptoms should visit a doctor. If fibroids cause heavy bleeding, or if they press on adjacent organs and cause pain, your doctor may suggest surgery or other treatment.o Endometriosis is another benign condition that affects the uterus. It is most common in women aged thirties and forties, especially in women who had never been pregnant. It occurs when endometrial tissue begins to grow on the outside of the uterus and on nearby organs. This condition can cause menstrual periods painful, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and sometimes loss of fertility (ability to become pregnant), but it does not cause cancer. Women with endometriosis can be treated with hormones or surgery.o Endometrial hyperplasia is an increase in the number of cells in the lining of the uterus. It is not cancer. Sometimes it develops into cancer. Menstrual periods are heavy, bleeding between periods, and bleeding after menopause are common symptoms of hyperplasia. It is most common after age 40.
In order to prevent endometrial hyperplasia from developing into cancer, doctors may recommend surgery to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) or treatment with hormones (progesterone) and examinations follow-ups regularly.* Malignant tumors are cancer. They are generally more serious and possibly life threatening. Cancer cells can invade and damage tissues and organs nearby. Also, cancer cells can break away from a malignant tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system (lymphatic system). That is how cancer cells spread from the original tumor to form new tumors in other organs. The spread of cancer is called metastasis.
When uterine cancer (uterine cancer) spreads (metastasizes) outside the uterus, cancer cells are often found in lymph nodes, nerves, blood vessels or adjacent. If the cancer has reached the lymph nodes, cancer cells may have spread to lymph nodes and other organs, such as lung, liver, and bones.
When cancer spreads from its original location to other parts of the body, the new tumor has the kinds of abnormal cells are the same and the same name as the primary tumor. For example, if uterine cancer spreads to the lungs, the cancer cells in the lungs are actually uterine cancer cells (uterine). The disease is metastatic uterine cancer, not lung cancer. He was treated as uterine cancer, not lung cancer. Doctors sometimes call the new tumor disease "long distance".
This type of cancer of the uterus (womb) which most commonly begins in the lining (endometrium). Also called edometrial cancer (endometrial cancer), uterine cancer, or uterine cancer. Here we will use the terms uterine cancer or uterine cancer refers to cancer that starts in the endometrium.
A different type of cancer, uterine sarcoma, develops in the muscle (myometrium). Cancer that starts in the cervix (cervical cancer) is also a distinct type of cancer.People With Cancer Berisko Gynecology
There is no single person who knows the exact causes of uterine cancer. However, it is clear that the disease is not contagious. There is no single person who can "catch" cancer from another person.
Women who get this disease more likely to have certain risk factors than other women. A risk factor is something that can increase the likelihood of someone developing the disease.
Most women who have known risk factors do not get uterine cancer. On the other hand, many who have this disease do not have these factors. Doctors can seldom explain why one woman gets womb cancer while others do not.
Studies have found the following risk factors:
* Age. Uterine cancer occurs mostly in women aged over 50 years.* Endometrial hyperplasia. The risk of uterine cancer is higher if a woman has endometrial hyperplasia. This condition and its treatment are described above.* Hormone Replacement Therapy, Hormone replacement therapy (HRT). HRT is used to control symptoms of menopause, prevent osteoporosis (thinning bones), and reduce the risk of heart disease or stroke.
Women who use estrogen without progesterone have an increased risk of uterine cancer. Long-term use and large doses of estrogen seem to increase this risk. Women who use a combination of estrogen and progesterone have a risk of uterine cancer are lower than those women who only used estrogen alone.
Progesterone protects the womb (uterus)
Women should discuss the benefits and risks of HRT with their doctors. Also, have examinations (checkups) regularly when taking HRT may improve the likelihood your doctor will find uterine cancer at an early stage, if he develops.* Obesity and related conditions. The body makes some of its estrogen in fatty tissue. That is why obese women are more likely than thin women have a level higher estrogen in the body-body. Estrogen levels are high may be the reason that obese women have an increased risk of developing uterine cancer. The risk of this disease is also higher in women with diabetes or high blood pressure (conditions that occur in many obese women).* Tamoxifen. Women who are taking tamoxifen to prevent or treat breast cancer have an increased risk of uterine cancer. This risk appears to be related to estrogen-like effect of this drug in the womb. Doctors monitor women taking tamoxifen for possible signs or symptoms of uterine cancer.
The benefits of tamoxifen to treat breast cancer outweigh the risk of developing other cancers. Still, every woman is different. Any woman considering taking tamoxifen should discuss with their doctors about personal and family medical history and her concerns.* Race. White women were more likely than women of African-American women get uterine cancer.* Colorectal Cancer (Colorectal cancer). The women who had received an inherited form of colorectal cancer (colorectal cancer) have a higher risk of developing uterine cancer than other women.
Other risk factors associated with how long the body of a woman's exposure to estrogen. Women who do not have children, begin menstruation at a very young age, or enter menopause late in life are exposed to estrogen longer and have a higher risk.
Women with risk factors that are known and those who are concerned about uterine cancer should ask their doctors about symptoms that should be monitored and how often do checkups. Doctor's advice will be based on the woman's age, medical history, and other factors.Gynecology Cancer Symptoms
Uterine cancer usually occurs after menopause. But he also can occur around the time menopause started. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom of uterine cancer. Bleeding may start as a liquid flow of blood striped gradually contains more blood. Women should not assume that abnormal vaginal bleeding is part of menopause.
A woman should see her doctor if she has symptoms anywhere from the following:
* Bleeding or unusual vaginal discharge* Difficult or painful urination* Painful intercourse time* Pain in the pelvic area
These symptoms may be caused by cancer or conditions that other less serious. More often they are not cancer, but only a doctor can be sure.
Gynecology Cancer Diagnosis
If a woman has symptoms that suggest uterine cancer, her doctor may check general signs of health and may order blood tests and urine. Doctors may also perform one or more examinations or tests that are discussed on the following pages.
* Pelvic exam - A woman has a pelvic exam to check the vagina, uterus, bladder, and rectum. Doctor feels these organs for any lumps or changes shape and size. To see the top of the vagina and uterus lehe, the doctor inserts an instrument called a speculum into the vagina.* A Pap test - The doctor takes cells from the cervix and upper vagina. A medical laboratory checks for abnormal cells. Although the Pap test can detect cervical cancer, cells from the inside of the womb is usually not seen on a Pap test. This is why doctors take samples of cells from the inside of the womb in a procedure called a biopsy.* Transvaginal ultrasound - The doctor inserts an instrument into the vagina. The tool directs sound waves at high-frequency content. The patterns of the echoes they produce creates a picture. If the endometrium looks too thick, the doctor may perform a biopsy.* Biopsy - The doctor removes a sample of tissue from the lining of the uterus. This can usually be done in the doctor's office. In some cases, however, a woman may require a dilation and curettage (D & C). A D & C is usually done as same-day surgery with anesthesia in a house hurt. A pathologist examines the tissue to check for cancer cells, hyperplasia, and other conditions. For a short time after the biopsy, some women have cramps and vaginal bleeding.Increased Cancer Gynecology
If uterine cancer is diagnosed, the doctor needs to know the level, or extent, of the disease to plan the best treatment. The increase is a careful attempt to determine whether the cancer has spread, and if so, to what parts of the body.
The doctor may order blood tests and urine tests and chest x-rays. The woman also may have other x-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy.
In most cases, the most reliable way to make levels of this disease is to remove the womb (hysterectomy). Once the content is removed, the surgeon can look for obvious signs that the cancer has invaded the muscle content. The surgeon also can check the lymph nodes and other organs in the pelvic area for signs of cancer. A pathologist uses a microscope to check the contents and other tissues are removed by surgeons.
These are the main characteristics of each level of disease:
* Level I - Cancer is only in the body content. Not in the cervix.* Level II - cancer has spread from the body content of the cervix.* Level III - Cancer has spread out from the womb, but not yet out of the pelvis (and not to the bladder or rectum). Lymph nodes in the pelvis may contain cancer cells.* Level IV - The cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum. Or it has spread beyond the pelvis to other parts of the body.
Cancer Care Ingredients
Many women who want to take an active part in making decisions about their health care. They want to learn all they can about their disease and their treatment choices. However, shock and stress that can be felt by the people after a cancer diagnosis can make it difficult for them to think of everything that they want to ask the doctor. It is often useful to create a list of questions before an appointment. To remember what was said by doctors, patients may take notes or ask whether they can use a tape recorder. Some women also want to have a family member or friend with them when they talk with the doctor - to take part in discussions, to note, or just listen.
Doctors of patients may be referred to the physician-doter specializing (specialists) in the treatment of cancer, or he can ask for references. Treatment usually begins within a few weeks after diagnosis. There is a time for women to talk to your doctor about treatment choices, get a second opinion, and learn more challenged uterine cancer.
Getting a second opinion
Before starting treatment, a woman may want a second opinion about the diagnosis, cancer rates, and treatment plans. Some companies require a second opinion others may be complementary to a second opinion if the woman requests it. Collect medical records and make an appointment with the doctor may take a little time. In most cases, a short delay does not make treatment less effective.
There are a number of ways to find a doctor for a second opinion:
* Your doctor may refer you to one or more specialists. Specialists who treat women with uterine cancer including surgeons, gynecologic oncologists (gynecologic oncologists), cancer treatment specialists (medical oncologists), and radiation cancer specialists (radiation oncologists). At cancer centers, several specialists often work together as a team (team).* NCI's Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER, can tell you about the treatment centers are adjacent.* The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) has a dafter of the doctors who have received training and passed the exam in the specialty.Preparation for Treatment
Options for treatment depends on tumor size, stage of disease, whether female hormones affect tumor growth, and levels of tumor. (The rate tells how closely the cancer cells resemble normal cells and suggests how quickly the cancer may grow. Cancers low levels likely to grow and spread more slowly than the high level of cancers). Doctors also consider other factors, including age and general health of women.Methods of Treatment of Cancer Gynecology
Women with uterine cancer have many treatment choices. Most women with uterine cancer treated with surgery. Some have radiation therapy. A smaller number of women may be treated with hormone therapy. Some patients received a combination of therapies.
The doctor is the best person to describe / explain the treatment choices and discuss the results of treatment are expected.
A woman may want to talk to her doctor about taking part in a clinical trial, a research study of treatment methods are new. Clinical trials are an important option for women with all levels of uterine cancer.
Most women with uterine cancer have surgery to remove the womb (hysterectomy) through an incision in the abdomen. Doctors also raised both fallopian tubes and both ovaries (ovaries). This procedure is called a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
The doctor may also raise the lymph nodes near the tumor to see whether they contain cancer. If cancer cells have reached the lymph nodes, it can mean that the disease has spread to other parts of the body. If cancer cells have not spread outside the endometrium, the woman may not require any other treatment. Lengthy hospital stays may vary from several days to a week.
In radiation therapy, high-energy rays are used to kill cancer cells. Like surgery, radiation therapy is a local therapy. It affects cancer cells only in the treated area.
Some women with uterine cancer stage I, II, or III require both radiation therapy and surgery. They may have radiation before surgery to shrink tumors or after surgery to destroy cancer cells anywhere that remain in the area. Also, your doctor may suggest radiation treatments for a small number of women who can not run the operation.
Doctors use two types of radiation therapy to treat uterine cancer:
* External radiation: In external radiation therapy, a large machine outside the body is used to direct radiation at the tumor area. The woman is usually an outpatient hospital or clinic and receives external radiation 5 days a week for several weeks. This schedule helps protect cells and tissues healthy by spreading out the total dose of radiation. No radioactive materials are placed into the body for external radiation therapy.* Internal radiation: In internal radiation therapy, tiny tubes containing a radioactive substance is inserted through the vagina and left in place for several days. This woman stayed in the hospital for treatment in. To protect others from exposure to radioactive, the patient can not receive guests or can receive visitors only for a short period of time when the implant in place. Once the implant is removed, the woman has no radioactivity in her body.
Some patients need both external and internal radiation therapy
Hormone therapy involves elements which prevent cancer cells gain or using the hormones they may need to grow. Hormones can be linked to cells that hormone receptors (hormone receptors), causing changes in the content network. Before treatment starts, your doctor may request a hormone receptor test. Lab tests of a network of specialized content that will help your doctor learn if cells are estrogen and progesterone receptors are present. If the tissue has receptors, the woman likely to respond to hormonal therapy.
Hormone therapy is called a systemic therapy because it can affect cancer cells throughout the body. Typically, hormone therapy is a type of progesterone taken as a pill.
Doctors may use hormonal therapy for women with uterine cancer that can not have surgery or radiation therapy. Also, your doctor may give hormone therapy in women with uterine cancer that has spread to the lungs or other distant places. He was also given to women with uterine cancer that has come back.Side Effects of Cancer Treatments
Because cancer treatment can damage cells and tissues healthy, side effects sometimes occur that are not desirable. These side effects depends on many factors, including the type and extent of treatment. Side effects may not be the same for everyone, and they may even change from one treatment session to the next session. Before treatment starts, doctors and nuns will explain possible side effects and how they will help you control them.Operation
After a hysterectomy, women usually have some pain and feel very tired. Most women return to their normal activities within 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Some may require more time than that.
Some women may have problems with nausea and vomiting after surgery, and some may have problems bladder and bowel. Physicians may restrict his diet to liquids woman first time, with a return to solid foods gradually.
Women who have had a hysterectomy no longer have menstrual periods and no longer able to conceive. When the ovaries (ovaries) removed, menopause occurs at once. Heartburn and other symptoms of menopause caused by surgery may be more severe than those caused by natural menopause. Hormone replacement therapy [Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)] is often given to women who do not have uterine cancer to relieve these problems. However, doctors usually do not give the hormone estrogen in women who have had uterine cancer. Since estrogen is a risk factor for this disease, many doctors are concerned that estrogen may cause uterine cancer to recur. Other doctors showed that there is no scientific evidence that estrogen increases the risk that cancer will recur. NCI is sponsoring a large research study to learn whether women who have had early stage uterine cancer can take it safely.
For some women, a hysterectomy can affect sexual intimacy. A woman may lose the feeling that may make intimacy difficult. Sharing these feelings with his partner may be beneficial.Radiation Therapy
Side effects from radiation therapy depend mainly of the treatment dose and the body part being treated. Side effects of radiation, including the general dryness, flushed skin and hair loss in the treated area, loss of appetite, and fatigue. Some women may have vaginal dryness, itching, tightening, and burning. Radiation also may cause diarrhea or frequent urination and unpleasant. He may reduce the number of white blood cells, which help protect the body against infection.
Doctors may advise their patients not to have intercourse during radiation therapy. However, most can resume sexual activity within a few weeks after treatment ended. Your doctor or nurse may suggest ways to eliminate all uncomfortable vagina associated with treatment.
Hormone therapy can cause some side effects. The women who wear progesterone may retain fluid, have an increased appetite, and weight gain. Women who are still menstruating may have changes in their periods.Nutrition
People need to eat well during cancer therapy. They need calories and proteins are sufficient to promote healing, maintain strength, and maintaining a healthy weight. Eating well often helps people with cancer feel better and have more energy.
Patients may not feel like eating if they feel uncomfortable or tired. Also, the side effects of treatment such as no appetite, nausea, or vomiting can make eating difficult. Foods may taste different.
Doctors, dieticians, or other health care can advise patients about ways to maintain a healthy diet.
Concern on the Follow-up
Concern on the Follow-up after treatment of uterine cancer is important. Women should not hesitate to discuss follow-ups with their doctor. Regular checkups ensure that any changes in the health record. Any problem that develops can be found and treated as soon as possible. Checkups may include a physical examination, a pelvic examination, x-rays, and laboratory tests.
Women-Support For Women With Cancer Gynecology
Support groups can also help. In these groups, patients or family members meet with other patients or their families to share what they have learned about coping with illness and treatment effects. These groups can offer support in person, via telephone, or internet. May you want to talk to someone from your health care team about finding a support group.
It is natural for a woman concerned about the effects of uterine cancer and its treatment . He might want to talk with their doctors about the possible side effects and whether these effects are probably a temporary or permanent. Whatever the predictions, it may be beneficial for women and their partners to talk about their feelings and help each other find the streets to share intimacy during and after treatment.
People living with cancer may be concerned about the care their families, keeping their jobs, or survive with daily activities. Concerns-concerns about the care and control of side effects, hospital stays, and medical costs are also common. The doctors, nuns, and members of other health care team will answer questions about care, employment, or other activities. Met a social worker, counselor, or member of the religious can be beneficial to those who want to talk about their feelings or discuss their concerns-concerns. Often, a social worker can suggest sources of financial aid, transportation, home care, or emotional support.
Promise of Cancer Research
Doctors across the country are conducting many types of clinical trials, research studies where people take part voluntarily. Many studies of treatment for women with uterine cancer was on his way. Research has led to advances, and researchers are continually seeking approaches more effective.
Patients who take part in clinical trials have the first chance to benefit from treatments that have shown promise (hope) in an earlier study. They also make an important contribution to medical science by helping doctors learn more about the disease. Although the clinical trials described some of the risks, researchers take many steps very carefully to protect the people who took part.
In a large trial with hundreds of women, doctors are studying a method much less extensive operation to raise the womb. Normally, the doctor makes an incision in the abdomen to remove the womb. In this study, doctors use a laparoscope (a tube that shine) to help lift the womb through the vagina. Also, doctors may use a laparoscope to help remove the ovaries and lymph nodes and look into the abdomen for signs of cancer.
Other researchers are looking at the effectiveness of radiation therapy after surgery, as well as on a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Other trials are studying new drugs, new combination of drugs, and biological therapies. Some of these studies were created to find ways of reducing the side effects of treatment and improve quality of life of women.
Monday, June 18, 2012
Uterine Cancer - Gynecology Cancer - Sign and Symptoms
Uterine Cancer - Gynecology Cancer - Sign and Symptoms