Monday, July 9, 2012

Women Who Have Sex with Women

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Women Who Have Sex with Women
What is the HIV Risk?

Female-to-female transmission of HIV appears to be a very rare occurrence. However, case reports of HIV in women who have sex with women (wsw) indicate that vaginal secretions and menstrual blood are potentially infectious and that mucous membrane (e.g., oral, vaginal) exposure to these secretions has the potential to transmit HIV.

What Does Surveillance Say About HIV Transmission Between Women?
Through 2004, almost 250,000 women were living with HIV. Of these, approximately 7400 were reported to have had sex with women; however, the vast majority had other risks (such as injection drug use, sex with high-risk men, or receipt of blood or blood products). Of the 534 women who were reported to have had sex only with women, 91 percent also had another risk.

What Does Follow-up Surveillance Show?
Follow-up surveillance was done on women whose only reported risk was sex with women. As of December 2004, none of these studies could definitely confirm the possibility of female-to-female HIV transmission. In those women studied, other risks were usually identified or women declined to participate in follow-up interviews. In fact, a separate study of more than 1 million female blood donors found no HIV-infected women whose only risk was sex with women. These findings suggest that female-to-female transmission of HIV is uncommon. However uncommon, these results do not rule out the possibility of female-to-female HIV transmission.

What Behaviors Place WSW at Risk of HIV Infection?
Surveys have shown that many wsw have increased rates of high-risk behaviors such as:

* injection drug use
* unprotected vaginal sex with gay/bisexual men who are injection drug users.

What Can WSW do to Reduce Their Risk of HIV?
While the occurence is rare, women who have sex with women need to realize that the risk of HIV transmission is there. These women need to know:

* that exposure of a mucous membrane(of the mouth) to vaginal secretions and menstrual blood is potentially infectious
* that condoms should be used properly each and every time during sexual contact with men or when using sex toys.
* sex toys should not be shared.
* women can use dental dams, cut-open condoms, or plastic wrap to help protect themselves from contact with body fluids during oral sex.
* to reduce their risk of becoming infected women should know their own HIV status as well as their partner's
* for women who are HIV positive knowing their status early improves their prognosis and helps prevent infecting others.

To accurately assess a women's HIV risk, health professionals also need to remember:

* that sexual identity does not necessarily predict behavior, and that women who identify as lesbian may be at risk for HIV through unprotected sex with men.
* that prevention interventions targeting wsw must address behaviors (injecting drugs and unprotected sex) that put wsw at risk for HIV infection.

Source: Centers for Disease Control, "HIV/AIDS Among Women Who Have Sex With Women"; 1 Jun 2006.

What is the Status of HIV/AIDS Among Women

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What is the Status of HIV/AIDS Among Women

HIV infection in women offers uniques challenges for the woman living with HIV and the person caring for her. Unfortunately, in some parts of the world HIV/AIDS among women is growing at an alarming rate. Let's take a look at the HIV statistics related to HIV and women. What is the status of HIV/AIDS among women of the world?

HIV Among Women
In the early years of the HIV epidemic, few women were diagnosed with the disease. Today about 25 percent of all new HIV cases are women. Women of color have been particularly hard hit. As of 2004:

* AIDS was the leading cause of death among black women aged 25 to 34 years old; the third leading cause of death among black women 35 to 44 years old; the fourth leading cause of death among black women 45 to 54 years old.

* AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death among Hispanic women 35 to 44 years old.

* HIV infection was the fifth leading cause of death among all women 35 to 44 years old; sixth leading cause of death among all women 25 to 44 years old.

* The only diseases that cause greater number of deaths among women are cancer and heart disease.

HIV Statistics - 2005

* Approximately 9700 women were diagnosed with HIV
o 80 percent were from heterosexual transmission

* Approximately 37,000 people were newly diagnosed with HIV
o 26 percent of these were women

* There were about 127,000 women living with HIV in 2005
o 64 percent were black
o 19 percent were white
o 15 percent were Hispanic
o one percent were Asian / Pacific Islander
o less than one percent were American Indian / Alaska Native

* The number of women with HIV decreased from almost 12,000 in 2001 to about 9700 in 2005.

AIDS Statistics - 2005

* Of the nearly 41,000 AIDS diagnoses in the US, 26 percent were women.

* The AIDS diagnosis rate for black women was 23 times greater than white women and 4 times the rate of Hispanic women.

* Of the 422,000 people living with AIDS in the US, 23 percent were women.

* 25 percent of all AIDS deaths in the US were women.

* 19 percent of all AIDS cases from 1981 to 2005 were women

* In 1992 women accounted for 19 percent of people living with AIDS. By 2005 that number had grown to 23 percent.

* While black and Hispanic women together represent 24 percent of the US female population, they represent 82 percent of the AIDS diagnoses in 2005.

Center for Disease Control; "HIV/AIDS Among Women"; 1 Jun 2007.

Thrush in Babies (Hazards Thrush in Babies)

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A hungry baby who finds it painful to eat is a very sad sight, and a bout of thrush can be very trying — but it's usually short-lived. Give your baby all the comfort he needs and follow your pediatrician's instructions for pain relief and medication, and this infection, too, shall pass!

Uncontrolled, a mild case of oral candidiasis (the medical term for thrush) can quietly spread to your digestive system, infiltrate your blood, and even invade your brain!

My baby has white patches on the insides of her cheeks. What could this be?

It could be a common and harmless yeast infection known as thrush. Thrush looks like cottage cheese or milk curds on the sides, roof, and sometimes the tongue of a baby's mouth. It's most common in babies 2 months and younger, but it can appear in older babies, too.

What causes thrush?

Yeast is a normal part of everyone's digestive system, but when there's an imbalance, an infection sets in. Most infants first come in contact with yeast as they travel down the birth canal. Thrush can develop when hormonal changes right after birth trigger an overgrowth of yeast in your baby's mouth.

After your baby is born, antibiotics taken by you (if you're breastfeeding) or your baby can trigger a case of thrush. That's because antibiotics kill off "good" bacteria that keep yeast in check.

Some moms and babies pass the infection back and forth: Your baby can pass thrush on to you if you're breastfeeding, resulting in a painful yeast infection on your nipples that will need a doctor's treatment. And you can trigger a case of thrush in your baby if you're breastfeeding and you develop a yeast infection on your nipples from taking antibiotics. On the other hand, some moms remain uninfected even while breastfeeding babies who have thrush — and some breastfed babies are not affected by their mother's yeast infection.

Some people think thrush can also be caused by prolonged sucking on a bottle or pacifier. Others think poor hygiene of bottle nipples is to blame. But infants who breastfeed exclusively and don't use pacifiers can also get it, so it's hard to pinpoint any one cause. Some babies (and some moms) are simply more susceptible than others to yeast.

How can I know for sure that it's thrush?

If you think your baby has thrush, look for the characteristic white patches. Then gently touch a patch with a gauze-covered finger. If it is thrush, it probably won't come off very easily, but if it does, you'll find a raw, red area underneath that may bleed.

If you notice a white coating on your baby's tongue but nowhere else, it's probably just milk residue (especially if you can wipe it off). Thrush patches can appear on your baby's tongue, but are most often found on the sides of the mouth. These spots can be painful — you may first suspect thrush if your baby starts crying when nursing or sucking on a pacifier or bottle.

How can I treat thrush?

In many cases, no treatment is necessary. Thrush typically clears up on its own in a couple of weeks. Some babies find thrush painful and bothersome, while others don't seem to notice. If your baby seems uncomfortable, by all means call your pediatrician, who may be able to give you a prescription over the phone for an oral fungal medication called Nystatin. You'll "paint" the medicine on the white patches with the enclosed applicator (or your finger) several times a day for ten days. It may take a week to clear up the infection. If the infection doesn't seem to be clearing up, call your doctor. Some babies with thrush also develop a yeast diaper infection. If that happens, your doctor can prescribe a fungal medication to use in the diaper area.''

If you're breastfeeding a baby with thrush, many doctors also recommend that you apply Nystatin or Lotramin to your nipples so that you and your baby won't pass the infection back and forth.''

Can I do anything to prevent my baby from getting thrush?

Nothing can be done to keep babies from picking up yeast as they pass through the birth canal. To ward off future infections, avoid giving your baby antibiotics unnecessarily (antibiotics can bring on a case of thrush by killing off bacteria that keep yeast under control). Cleaning and sterilizing pacifiers may also help. And some pediatricians advise breastfeeding mothers to let their nipples air dry between feedings to prevent thrush.''

Is thrush dangerous?

No. But if your baby is very fussy and uncomfortable, thrush could interfere with breast- or bottle-feeding. Your doctor may recommend that you give your baby acetaminophen for the pain.''

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Gum Disease

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Gum disease is very common. In the UK, it is estimated that half the adult population has some degree of gum disease and most people experience it at least once. It is much less common in children. If you have gum disease, your gums may bleed when you brush your teeth and you may have bad breath. In severe cases, a condition called periodontitis can develop. It affects the tissues that support teeth and hold them in place. Each year in the UK there are about six cases of severe periodontitis for every 100,000 people.''

If periodontitis is not treated, the bone in your jaw can decay and small spaces can open up between the gum and teeth. Your teeth can become loose and may eventually fall out. about the symptoms of gum disease. What causes gum disease? Gum disease is caused by a build-up of plaque on the teeth. Plaque is a sticky substance that contains bacteria. Some bacteria in plaque is harmless, but some is very harmful for the health of your gums. If you do not remove plaque from your teeth by brushing them, it will build up and irritate your gums, leading to inflammation and soreness. About the causes of gum disease. ''

When to see your dentist You should make an appointment to see your dentist if your gums are painful, inflamed or if they bleed when you brush your teeth. You can find a dentist near you by using the post code search facility.''

Preventing and treating gum disease

Mild cases of gum disease can usually be treated or 'reversed' by maintaining a good level of oral hygiene. This includes brushing your teeth using an effective technique at least twice a day and flossing daily. If necessary, your dentist will be able to give your teeth a thorough clean and remove any hardened plaque (tartar). They will also be able to show you how to clean your teeth effectively to help prevent plaque building up in the future. If you have severe gum disease, you will need to have further non-surgical treatment and, in some cases, surgical treatment. This will usually be carried out by a specialist in periodontics. Read more about treating gum disease and how to keep your teeth clean. Also, read more about preventing gum disease. Complications of gum disease If you have untreated gum disease that develops into periodontitis, it can lead to further complications such as:
* Gum abscesses (painful collections of pus)
* Damage to the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the socket)
* Damage to the alveolar bone (the bone in the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth)
* Receding gums
* Loose teeth
* Loss of teeth Complications of Gum Disease.

If you do not treat periodontitis (where the tissue that supports teeth is affected), you may develop further complications including:

* Recurrent gum abscesses (painful collections of pus)
* Increasing damage to the periodontal ligament (the tissue that connects the tooth to the socket)
* Increasing damage to the alveolar bone (the bone in the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth)
* Receding gums
* Loose teeth
* Loss of teeth Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis If you have acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) and it is not treated, it can cause more severe complications. The infection can spread to all areas of your gums and the alveolar bone surrounding your teeth. This can lead to:
 * The gums between your teeth being completely destroyed
* Large ulcers (open sores) leaving permanent holes in your gums
* Loose and unstable teeth If ANUG is not properly treated the first time you have it, you are more likely to have recurring cases in future. This can leave you with:
* Bad breath (halitosis)
* Bleeding gums
* Receding gums Gangrene In very rare cases, ANUG can lead to a condition called gangrene. Gangrene occurs when tissue starts to die and waste away. The type of gangrene that can occur as a result of ANUG is called noma. Noma affects lips and cheeks. If you develop it, you may need to have the dead tissue removed. Noma usually only affects people who:
* Have a very weak immune system - for example, those with conditions such as HIV and AIDS
* Are malnourished - do not eat enough of the right food groups to get the nutrients they need for good health.''

Tongue Problem Basics

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Though often hailed as "the strongest muscle in the body," the tongue is actually made up of a group of muscles that allow us to taste food, swallow, and talk. A healthy tongue is pink and covered with small nodules called papillae.''

Because you use your tongue constantly, it can be frustrating and uncomfortable when you experience tongue problems, including discoloration and soreness. There are a variety of causes for a number of common tongue symptoms. Fortunately, the majority of tongue problems are not serious and most can be resolved quickly.''

In some instances, however, a discolored or painful tongue can indicate more serious conditions, including vitamin deficiencies, AIDS, or oral cancer. For this reason, it is important to seek medical advice if you experience any ongoing problems with your tongue.''

What Causes a White Tongue?

There are a number of things that can cause a whitish coating or white spots to develop on the tongue, including:

Leukoplakia. This condition causes cells in the mouth to grow excessively. That, in turn, leads to the formation of white patches inside the mouth, including on the tongue. Although not dangerous on its own, leukoplakia can be a precursor to cancer. So it is important for your dentist to determine the cause of white patches on your tongue. Leukoplakia can develop when the tongue has been irritated and is often found in people who use tobacco products.''

Oral thrush. Also known as candidiasis, oral thrush is a yeast infection that develops inside the mouth. The condition results in white patches that are often cottage cheese-like in consistency on the surfaces of the mouth and tongue. Oral thrush is most commonly seen in infants and the elderly, especially denture wearers, or in people with compromised immune systems. People with diabetes and people taking inhaled steroids for asthma or lung disease can also get thrush. Oral thrush is more likely to occur after the use of antibiotics, which may kill the "good" bacteria in the mouth. Eating plain yogurt with live and active cultures may help restore the proper fauna in your mouth. Additionally, medications may be used to combat the infection.

Oral lichen planus. If you have a network of raised white lines on your tongue that has a lace-like appearance, you may be suffering from oral lichen planus. Doctors are often unable to determine the cause of this condition, which often resolves on its own. Practicing proper dental hygiene, avoiding tobacco, and limiting your consumption of foods that cause irritation to your mouth may helpful.''

What Causes a Red or Strawberry Tongue?

There are multiple factors that can cause a normally pink tongue to turn red. In some instances, the tongue may even take on the appearance of a strawberry with enlarged, red taste buds dotting the surface. Possible causes include:

Vitamin deficiencies. Deficiencies of folic acid and vitamin B-12 may cause your tongue to take on a reddish appearance.''

Geographic tongue. This condition, also known as benign migratory glossitis, is named for the map-like pattern of reddish spots that develop on the surface of the tongue. At times, these patches have a white border around them and their location on the tongue may shift over time. Though usually harmless, you should check with your dentist to investigate red patches that last longer than two weeks. Once the dentist has determined that the redness is a result of geographic tongue, no further treatment is necessary. If the condition makes your tongue sore or uncomfortable, you may be prescribed topical medications to alleviate discomfort.

Scarlet fever. People suffering from this streptococcal infection may develop a strawberry tongue. Be sure to contact a doctor immediately if you have a high fever and red tongue. Antibiotic treatment is necessary for scarlet fever.

Kawasaki syndrome . This disease, usually seen in children under the age of five, affects the blood vessels in the body and can cause strawberry tongue. During the acute phase of illness, children often run an extremely high fever and may also have redness and swelling in the hands and feet.

What Causes Black Hairy Tongue?

Though incredibly disconcerting in appearance, a black, hairy tongue is typically nothing serious. The small bumps on the surface of your tongue, called papillae, grow throughout your lifetime. In some people, the papillae become excessively long, rather than being worn down by daily activities. That makes them more likely to harbor bacteria. When these bacteria grow, they may look dark or black and the overgrown papillae appear hair-like.

This condition is not particularly common and is most likely to occur in people who do not practice good dental hygiene. People who are on antibiotics or receiving chemotherapy and people with diabetes may be more likely to have a black hairy tongue.''

What Causes a Sore or Bumpy Tongue?

There are many things that can make your tongue to become sore or cause painful bumps to form, including:

Trauma. Accidentally biting your tongue or scalding it on something straight out of the oven can result in a sore tongue until the damage heals. Grinding or clenching the teeth can also irritate the sides of the tongue and cause it to become painful.

* Smoking. Smoking excessively can irritate your tongue and make it sore.''
* Canker sores. Many people will develop these mouth ulcers on the tongue at some point in their life. The cause is unknown, although they can be worse during periods of heightened stress.
* Burning tongue syndrome. Some post-menopausal women develop this syndrome, which makes the tongue feel as if it has been burned.''
* Enlarged papillae. If one or more of your taste buds becomes inflamed or irritated, it can swell and form a painful bump on your tongue.''
* Certain medical conditions. Medical conditions, including diabetes and anemia, can have a sore tongue as a symptom.''
* Oral cancer. Though most sore tongues are nothing to worry about, you should consult a doctor if you have a lump or sore on your tongue that doesn't go away within a week or two. Many oral cancers don't hurt in the early stages, so don't assume a lack of pain means nothing is wrong.''

Sunday, July 8, 2012

HIV/AIDS Among Hispanics

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HIV/AIDS Among Hispanics
A Growing Problem Among the Hispanic Population

While HIV does not discriminate among different races, genders, or ethnicities, certain populations are carrying a larger burden of the HIV epidemic than others. The Hispanic population is seeing their HIV population continue to grow and become a large proportion of the new HIV cases. Let's take a look at the HIV epidemic and see the impact of HIV/AIDS among Hispanics.

Cumulative Effects of HIV/AIDS in the Hispanic Community
Although Hispanics make up only about 14 percent of the population of the United States and Puerto Rico, they account for 18 percent; almost 164,000 of the more than 886,500 AIDS cases diagnosed since the beginning of the epidemic.

AIDS in the Hispanic Community

By the end of 2002, nearly 88,000 Hispanics had died of AIDS.
Among people given a diagnosis of AIDS since 1994, a smaller proportion of Hispanics (61 percent), compared with whites (64 percent) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (69 percent), were alive after 9 years.
The proportion of surviving Hispanics was larger than the proportions of surviving American Indians and Alaska Natives (58 percent) and African Americans (55 percent).
Hispanics accounted for more than 8,000, or 20 percent, of the more than 42,000 new AIDS diagnoses in the United States in 2002.
Of the rates of AIDS diagnoses for all racial and ethnic groups, the second highest was the rate for Hispanics. Here is the breakdown:
1. African Americans - 76.4 cases per 100,000 people
2. Hispanics - 26.0 per 100,000 people
3. American Indians and Alaska Natives - 11.2 per 100,000 people
4. Whites - 7.0 per 100,000 people
5. Asians and Pacific Islanders - 4.9 per 100,000 people
The 76,052 Hispanics living with AIDS accounted for 20 percent of all people in the United States living with AIDS

HIV in the Hispanic Community

Hispanics accounted for 13 percent of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses reported in the 30 areas with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting in the United States.
From 1999 through 2002, the number of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses increased by 26 percent among Hispanics in the 30 areas.
Most Hispanic men are exposed to HIV through sexual contact with other men, followed by injection drug use and heterosexual contact.
Most Hispanic women are exposed to HIV through heterosexual contact, followed by injection drug use.

Statistics provided by The Centers of Disease Control, 2004 - Updated Oct. 2007.

Your Risk of HIV Infection

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Your Risk of HIV Infection
Certain Conditions, Circumstances, and Behaviors Can Increase Your Risk

What is your risk of HIV infection? Certain conditions, circumstances, and behaviors can increase your risk of HIV infection. There are conditions and behaviors that make it easier for HIV to be transmitted from person to person. Without taking the proper precautions or being aware of high risk behavior, your risk of HIV can increase. Some of the more common ways your risk of HIV infection increases include:

Being Coinfected With Syphilis
People with syphilis may have open sores on their genitals that provide a route for HIV to enter the body when engaging in unprotected sex.

A Guide to Syphilis

Your Sexual Partner is in the Acute Stages of HIV Infection
The acute phase of HIV infection is characterized by very high HIV activity and very high viral loads. Having unprotected sex with someone in the acute stage of HIV increases the exposure to activily replicating HIV, in turn increasing the risk of HIV transmission.

What is Acute HIV?

Either Partner Has a Weakened Immune System
The body's immune system protects us from illness, infection, and disease. Anytime that protection is weakened, the body is at increased risk of illnesses and infections, including HIV. If either partner in a sexual relationship has a weakened immune system, that person becomes more at risk for HIV.

Understand the Immune Response

When Either Partner has an Open Wound
Open wounds provide a portal of entry for HIV. In other words, any open wound or break in the skin can allow HIV to enter the body

The Presence of a Large Quantity HIV Infected Blood
Large quantities of HIV infected blood exposes the body to an increase number of active HIV, making HIV infection easier. These large quantities of infected blood can occur during sex due to mechanical trauma of the sexual structures or during delivery of an HIV+ mom's newborn baby. Sharing syringes and needles can also expose people to large quantities of HIV infected blood.

What Are The Riskiest Behaviors?

Source: AIDS Infonet Fact Sheet 152 - "How Risky is It?"; October 25, 2005.

The Riskiest Activities. What Activities are Riskiest?

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What Activities are Riskiest?

HIV can be transmitted from person to person in many different ways. But which activities are the riskiest? Which activities carry the highest risk of HIV infection? Here are the most risky:

1. Sharing needles to inject drugs
• Does Needle Exchange Reduce HIV?
• Should Needle Exchange be Funded?

2. Receptive Anal Intercourse
• Barebacking...a Right of Passage
• Preventing HIV with Condoms

3. Vaginal Intercourse
HIV from Vaginal Sex
What is My HIV Risk?

AIDS Infonet; "How Risky is It?; October 25, 2005.

Privacy Policy

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Athlete's Foot - Infections, Care, Contagious, Definition and Treatments (Skin)

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Athlete's Foot - Infections, Care, Contagious, Definition (Skin)

Definition Athlete's Foot
Athlete's foot is a very common skin infection of the feet caused by fungus. The fungus that commonly causes athlete's foot is called Trichophyton. When the legs or other areas of the body stay moist, warm, and irritated, this fungus can grow and infect the upper layer of the skin. Fungal infections can occur anywhere on the body, including the scalp, body, body, limbs (arms and legs), hands, feet, nails, groin, and areas other.
Athlete's foot is caused by the ringworm fungus ("tinea" in medical jargon). Athlete's foot is also called tinea pedis. The fungus that causes athlete's foot can be found in many locations, including floors in gyms, locker rooms clothes (locker rooms), swimming pools, nail salons, and in socks and underwear. Mushrooms can also be spread directly from person to person or by touch (contact) with these objects.
However, without the growing conditions are right (an environment that is warm and humid), the fungus may not easily infect the skin. Up to 70% of the population may have athlete's foot at some point during their lives.Symptoms of Athlete's Foot
The symptoms of athlete's foot typically include varying degrees of itching and burning. The skin may frequently peel, and in cases of particularly severe, there may be some cracking, pain and bleeding as well. Some people have no symptoms at all and did not know they have an infection.
Form Athlete's Foot
Athlete's foot may appear as areas of red skin, peeling and dry in one or both feet. Sometimes dry flakes may spread on the sides and top of the legs. The most common rash is localized on only the soles of the feet. The spaces between the toes of the fourth and fifth also may have some moisture, stripping, and dry flakes.There are three common types of athlete's foot:
1. soles of the feet, also called type "moccasin"2. between the toes, also called type "interdigital"3. inflammatory type or blistering (blistering)
The cases that are not public might look like bubbles (blisters) are small or large feet (called bullous tinea pedis), thick patches of red and dry skin, or calluses with redness. Occasionally, it may seem like just a mild, dry skin without the redness or inflammation.
Athlete's foot may present as a rash on one or both legs, and even involving the hands. This is a very common designation of athlete's foot. Fungal infections are called tinea manuum hand. The exact cause of why the infection usually affects only one hand is not known.
Athlete's foot may also be seen along with ringworm of the groin (especially in men) or the hands. It is useful to examine the legs whenever there is a fungal groin rash called tinea cruris. It is important to treat all areas of fungal infection at the same time to avoid re-infection.Are Athlete's Foot Contagious?
Athlete's foot may spread from person to person, but he did not always contagious. Some people may be more susceptible to the fungus that causes athlete's foot where others are more resistant (resistant). There are many households where two people (often husband and wife or children) who use the same bathing place for many years the fungus has not spread among them. The exact cause of this tendency or susceptibility to fungal infections is unknown. Some people seem more prone to fungal skin infections than others.What are the Causes of Rash-Rash Legs?
There are many possible causes of leg rashes. Athlete's foot is one of the causes are more common. Additional causes include infections of the skin (dermatitis) that irritate or contact (touching), allergic rashes from shoes or other creams, dyshidrotic eczema (allergic skin rash), psoriasis, keratodermia blenorrhagicum, yeast infections, and bacterial infections.
Your doctor can perform a simple test called a KOH, or potassium hydroxide for microscopic examination of fungi, in the office or laboratory to confirm the presence of a fungal infection. This test is carried out by using small pieces of skin were tested under a microscope. Many skin specialists (dermatologists) to conduct this test in their practice with results available within minutes. Rarely, a small piece of skin may be removed and sent for biopsy to help confirm the diagnosis.Athlete's Foot Care
Treatment athlete's foot can be divided into two parts. The first, and most important part, is to make the infected area less suitable for athlete's foot fungus to grow. This means keeping the area clean and dry.
Buy shoes that are leather or other material that can breathe. Shoe materials, like vinyl, which does not breathe cause your legs remain moist, providing an excellent area for mushroom breeding. Likewise, socks that can absorb like cotton which absorbs water from your legs may help.
Powders, especially powders of treatment (such as with miconazole or tolnaftate), can help keep your feet dry. Finally, your feet can be soaked in a solution of dry aluminum acetate (Burrow's solution or solution Domeboro). A home-made drugs from the marinade of white vinegar diluted using one part vinegar and about four parts water, once or twice per day as a bath-soaking feet for 10 minutes may be helpful in treatment.
The second part of the treatment is the use of creams and anti-fungal rinse-rinse. Many medications are available, including sprays and creams miconazole, clotrimazole, terbinafine (Lamisil), and ketoconazole shampoo and cream, and so on. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for a recommendation. Treatment for athlete's foot should generally be continued for four weeks, or at least one week after all symptoms of the skin has been lost.
The cases are more advanced or resistant of athlete's foot may require a trip of two to three weeks of an antifungal oral (pill) such as terbinafine, itraconazole (Sporanox) or fluconazole (Diflucan). Laboratory blood tests to make sure no liver disease may be necessary before taking these pills.
Topical corticosteroid creams (worn on the outside) can work as a fertilizer for mushrooms and may actually worsen skin fungal infections. These medications are topical steroids have no role in treating athlete's foot.
If the fungal infection has spread to the nails of the toes, the nails should also be treated to avoid re-infection of the feet. Often, the nails were initially ignored only to find the athlete's foot remained relapse. It is important to take care of all the mushrooms that look at the same time. Effective nail fungus treatment is more intensive and may require prolonged journeys (three to four months) of anti-fungal medications orally.When should I seek medical care?
If you notice any redness, increased swelling, bleeding, or if your infection does not disappear, see your doctor. If a bacterial infection also occurs, an antibiotic pills may be necessary. If you have a fungal nail involvement, are diabetic, or have a compromised immune system, you should also visit your doctor immediately for treatment.Possible Complications of Athlete's Foot
Not treated, athlete's foot can potentially spread to other body parts or other persons including family members. Fungus may spread locally to the legs, toe nails, hands, finger nails, and basically any body area.
This type of fungus is generally happy to live in the skin, hair, and nails. He did not attack the inside, go to the organs of the body, or go into the blood system.
Fungal infections of the nails is called tinea unguium or onychomycosis. Nail fungus is probably very difficult to treat. Antifungal pills may be necessary in cases of further infections toe nail fungus.
People with diabetes, HIV / AIDS, cancer, or other immune problems may be more prone to all kinds of infections, including fungi.
When skin is injured by the fungus, which protects the natural skin barrier broken. Bacteria and yeast, the yeast can then invade the broken skin. Bacteria can cause a foul odor. Bacterial infections of the skin and inflammation that result from it are known as cellulitis. This is especially more likely to occur in older people, individuals with diabetes, chronic leg swelling, or who have been issued vein-vein (such as for heart bypass surgery). Bacterial skin infections also occurred more frequently in patients with immune systems are impaired.
Which type of Doctor Treating Athlete's Foot
Experts in the skin (Dermatologists) specializing in the treatment of skin disorders, including athlete's foot. You may find a list of expert-certified dermatologists in In addition, family medical doctors, internal medical doctors, doctors of children, podiatrists (foot doctors), and other doctors may also treat this common infection.
How Do I Prevent Future Infections?
Because some people are simply more susceptible to fungal infections, they are also more susceptible to repeated infections. Preventive measures include maintaining your legs clean and dry, moist environments avoiding prolonged, leave shoe-leather shoes and allow feet to breathe, avoiding the street barefoot, especially in public areas such as swimming pools and gyms, avoid contact with people known to be infected, and avoid the marinade and use of contaminated equipment in nail salons. Disinfect the old shoes and spray weekly or monthly periodic anti-fungal foot powder (Pedi-Foot Dry Powder) into the shoes can also be helpful.
It is imperative to bring the tools of your own nails, including nail files, nail salon to the public anywhere, unless you know the salon to practice strict sterilization equipment and or use of all supplies of disposables thrown away.
Use cotton socks whenever possible. Avoid roads at airports and public areas with bare feet. Make sure everyone from family members are affected as well treat their athlete's foot at the same time to avoid cross infections.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Green Tea Extract For Hair Grower

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Hair loss is a problem that can interfere with performance. Green tea extract with a content of 5% is proven to stimulate hair growth (Sumakdjaja, et al., 2008). Active substance in green tea (Camellia sinensis L) is efficacious as a hair fertilizer is catechin compound and its derivatives.

Green tea flavonoid compounds composed of epicatechin (EC), epicatechin error (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). It also contained gallic acid, galokatekin error (GCG), galokatekin (GC), catechin error (CG), catechin (C), vitamin B and vitamin C (Agus, 2007) that can strengthen the hair roots, prevents loss of hair roots, inhibit free radicals, neutralize toxins, and protects the scalp from infection. Formula cosmetic and food preparations contain active green tea has seized public attention. Active hair fertilizer made from green tea extract gel has not been found among the people. Based on this phenomenon, this study aims to develop hair fertilizer gel formula with active extracts of green tea.

The research was conducted by creating four formulas, the formula I (1% Carbopol, TEA 0.3%, 1% glycerol), formula II (CMC Na 3%, 1% glycerol), formula III (72% PEG 400, PEG 4000 8%, 1% glycerol) and the formula IV (0.75% Carbopol, TEA 2%, 12% PEG 400, glycerin 1%). Each formula contains green tea extract with a content of 5%, 0.1% nipagin preservative, sodium metabisulfite and 0.1%, preparations are made of 100 grams. The fourth gel was then tested the quality of preparations include organoleptis test, homogeneity test, pH test, test dispersive power, adhesion test, a test of power protection, primary irritation test, test aseptabilitas, hair fertilizer and test activities.

The study found that the most optimal gel formula is the formula I which comprises 1% Carbopol, TEA 0.3%, and glycerin 1%. Formula I shows good consistency of gel, hair fertilizer has the highest activity, does not irritate the skin, as well as having good aseptabilitas.

Treatment for AIDS

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Alabama - There was an unexpected event to an AIDS patient from the U.S. (Berlin), only with an unusual blood transplantation patients can be cured. However, the doctors say that this method of treatment is not to be widely practiced.
The patient, aged 40, had blood cell transplant in 2007 to cure leukemia. Doctors are not only good at matching blood, but also have a gene mutation that gives a natural resistance to HIV. Thus quoted by the Associated Press, Wednesday (15/12/2010).
Now, after three years on, the patient no longer shows signs of the HIV virus and leukemia, according to a report in the journal Blood.
"This is an interesting proof of concept, that the extraordinary method, a patient can be cured of HIV virus. But it was too risky for the method to be used as standard therapy even if a suitable donor could be found," said Dr. Michael Saag of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, Alabama, United States.
"Transplantation of blood that much done lately, used to fight cancer, and risks to human health remains unknown. Blood transplant is to destroy the patient's original immune system, and replace it with donor cells to grow new immune system. The death rate from the procedure could reach 5 percent or more, "says Saag, who is also former chairman of the HIV Medicine Association, an association of AIDS specialists.
"We can not fully apply these methods of healing to healthy individuals, because the risk is too great, unless someone with the HIV virus is also suffering from cancer," added Saag.
When cases of AIDS patients recover in Berlin sticking to the surface two years ago, Dr. Anthony Fauci, president of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said that the procedure is too expensive and risky to do as a healing method. But these methods can provide instructions for using gene therapy or other methods to get the same results.

The cause of the sukhoi crash at Salak Mount

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Jakarta (ANTARA News) - Spectator aviation Chappy Hakim said the black box SukhoiSuperjet-100 aircraft will be a key clue to determine the cause of the crash inthe area of ​​Mount Salak, Bogor, West Java, on Wednesday (9/5) and .
"To find the most likely cause, the most helpful is the black box," saidformer Air Force Chief of Staff at the Red and White dialogue, cooperation ANTARAbroadcast, RRI and TVRI broadcast live on Wednesday.

He explained that the black box which generally consists of the flight data recorder(Flight Data Recorder / FDR) and cockpit voice recorder (Cockpit Voice Recorder/ CVR) recording the conversations between pilots and air traffic guides. Thedevice also stores the data of air pressure and weather conditions duringflight.

Data from the devices in a black box, according to Chappy, then must be read andanalyzed in depth by competent people.

"It takes an experienced senior captain, master technicians and experts fromrelated disciplines to analyze the flight before making conclusions about themost likely cause of the accident," he said. (Denny)

symptoms of anemia and cure of disease

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Anemia is a disease where the condition number of red blood cells in the blood is not normal or low. Doctors sometimes describe anemia as someone who has low blood. A person suffering from anemia is called anemia.

Blood consists of two parts, the liquid part called plasma cells and parts. Cellular section contains a variety of cell types. One of the most important and most types of cells are red blood cells. The other is a type of white blood cells and platelets cells. The purpose of the red blood cells is to deliver oxygen from lungs to other parts of the body. In general, there are three main types of anemia, classified according to the size of red blood cells:

If the red blood cells are smaller than usual, this is called microcytic anemia. The main cause of this type is iron deficiency anemia and hemoglobin.
If the size of red blood cells are normal in size (but the numbers are low), this is called normocytic anemia, such as the anemia that accompanies chronic disease or anemia associated with kidney disease.
If the red blood cells is greater than normal, it is called macrocytic anemia. The main cause of this type is associated with alcohol.

Solution treatment of anemia with less blood or blood less Spirulina traditional medicine, what is it and why should Spirulina spirulina anemia drugs? ... ..

SPIRULINA, plants that live mikroganggang since 3.6 billion years ago, is the most natural source of complete nutrition when compared with other nutrient sources that ever existed.

Spirulina is 100 percent natural source of nutrients and foods that are alkaline. To keep the body healthy, it is very important for us to consume everyday foods with balanced proportions between 80% food to 20% alkaline and acidic foods.

For that, spirulina does contain a very complete and nice to meet human nutritional needs. Imagine, spirulina found to contain 58 times more iron than spinach and 18 times higher than the meat. The algae also contain 25 times more beta carotene than carrots and 100 times more than the papaya, in addition to other content such as vitamins, proteins, minerals, fats, and carbohydrates.

Spirulina is available in pill or powder. Most of the spirulina consumed in the U.S. developed in the laboratory. There are all sorts of different spirulina species, only some of which are identified on labels of commercially available products. Spirulina maxima (developed in Mexico) and Spirulina plantensis (developed in California) is the most popular. Unfortunately, spirulina are marketed in various packages in the country of which they import from China, Japan, India, and the United States. This is because there are no investors who think of spirulina as a health food. And spirulina has many advantages when compared to other health supplements, among others:

1. Enhance immunity
In the latest research on the content of spirulina, revealed that these algae can be a stimulant cure of cancer through its ability to increase endurance. Spirulina works by increasing the production of antibodies, cytokines (infection fighting proteins), and other cells that enhances immunity to help heal infections and chronic diseases such as cancer.

2. As a protein supplement
Sixty-two percent of Spirulina consists of amino acids that are rich in protein and other nutrients. Spirulina has been used traditionally as a natural supplement for people who can not obtain sufficient calories or protein as a diet or for people who require more nutrients such as athletes.

3. Overcoming anemia
Spiriluna can also stabilize the number of red blood cells, white blood cells and hemoglobin. In addition, the nutritional needs of the body and reduce the side effects of delays in the production of stem cells or cells producing blood cells. In experiments on animals, it appears that spirulina increases hematopoiesis namely the formation of red blood cells. It is believed to be due to the high content of iron in it.

4. Overcoming allergies
Spirulina can also resist correcting allergies by preventing the release of histamine or substance that causes allergy symptoms like nasal congestion and watery eyes.

5. Overcome diseases associated with antibiotics
Despite destroying harmful organisms in the body, antibiotics can also kill the good bacteria called probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, which cause diarrhea. Spirulina shown to enhance the growth of L acidophilus and other probiotics.

6. Fight infection
Spirulina has the ability to ward off herpes, influenza, cytomeglovirus, and the HIV virus.

7. Addressing oral cancer
In one study, as many as 87 people who chewed tobacco and had a precancerous lesion (leukoplakia) is given spirulina or placebo at random. The result, lesions or sores on the mouth of the wearer of spirulina is more helpful to recovery than placebo users.

8. Overcoming liver damage
Spirulina can help fight the destruction of the liver and cirrhosis (liver failure) in chronic hepatitis.

9. Reducing cancer risk
Spirulina is useful to support cardiovascular function and cholesterol balance, improve digestive function, improve detoxification function and reduce the risk of cancer by protecting the body from free radicals.

10. Reducing the effects of chemotherapy
Spirulina reduces the effects of chemotherapy are not good, such as headache, no appetite, sleeplessness, nausea, vomiting, dry throat, or anxious

Additionally, spirulina contains skin-care products with respect to the nature moisturize and tighten. Components derived from spirulina also has the ability to help reduce inflammation such as arthritis. Seeing the benefits of spirulina million, of algae is good to eat all ages, from children to adults who care about good health

enlarged lymph nodes

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Lymph nodes found in several places in our bodies. Often bumps arise in areas where lymph nodes are and often it is also causing anxiety in both patients, elderly patients or whether this enlargement is a normal thing, a dangerous disease or a symptom of the malignancy. It is necessary to recognize the possibilities the causes of enlarged lymph nodes and the clinical picture so knowing the procedural path that will be done. Enlarged lymph nodes 55% in head and neck region because of the discussion takes precedence in the enlarged lymph nodes in head and neck region.

Lymph nodes (KGB)
Lymph nodes are part of our body's defense system. Our body has approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only the submandibular area (bottom of the lower jaw; sub: bottom; mandible: the lower jaw), armpit or groin are normal in healthy people is palpable.

Wrapped in a fibrous capsule that contains a collection of cells forming the body's defenses and is a screening antigen (foreign protein) of the lymph vessels to pass through. Lymph vessels will flow to the KGB that the KGB would know the location of lymph vessels that flow through it.

Therefore bypassed by the flow of lymph vessels which can carry antigens (microbes, foreign substances) and has the body's defense cells then if there is an antigen that infect the lymph nodes can produce immune cells that more to address these antigens so that the lymph nodes enlarged. Enlarged lymph nodes can be derived from the addition of immune cells derived from the BEC itself as lymphocytes, plasma cells, monocytes and histiocytes, or because the arrival of inflammatory cells (neutrophils) to overcome the infection in the lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), infiltration (influx) of malignant cells or a pile of metabolites disease macrophages (Gaucher disease)

By knowing the location of enlarged lymph nodes, we can deploy to the location of the possibility of infection or cause enlargement of the KGB.

Lymphadenopathy refers to the abnormal lymph nodes in size, consistency or number. In the neck region (cervikal), enlarged lymph nodes are defined when the glands are larger than the diameter of one centimeter. Enlarged lymph glands in the neck often occurs in children. Approximately 38% to 45% in normal children have lymph nodes are palpable neck region. From studies in the Netherlands there are 2556 cases of unexplained limadenopati and 10% referred to subspesialis, 3.2% require biopsy and 1.1% had malignancy. The study of family medicine in the United States, none of 80 patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy who had malignancies and three of 238 patients with malignancies of limadenopati unexplained.

Patients aged> 40tahun with unexplained lymphadenopathy risk keanasan 4% compared to 0.4% risk of malignancy when found in patients <40tahun.Figure 1. lymph nodes neck area, flow direction and possible causes. images taken from aafpFigure 2. lymph nodes groin area, flow direction and possible causes. Gambat taken from aafpFigure 3. lymph nodes arm area, flow direction and possible causes. Picture taken from aafpEtiology (cause)Enlarged lymph nodes can be divided into local or generalized (generalized). Enlarged lymph nodes generally defined as enlarged lymph nodes in two or more regions. Areas the presence of lymph nodes are:Picture taken from www.aafp.orgThe most common cause is the result of the process of infection and infections that usually occur is infection by viruses in the upper respiratory tract (rinovirus, parainfluenza virus, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, adenovirus, or reovirus). Other viruses ebstein barr virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella, rubeola, varicella-zooster virus, herpes simplex virus, coxsackievirus, human immunodeficiency virus. Bacteria in inflammatory lymph nodes (lymphadenitis) can be due to beta-hemolytic Streptococcus Group A or staphylococcus aureus. Anaerobic bacteria when associated with Dental caries (tooth decay) and gum disease. Diphtheria, haemophilus influenza type b rarely cause this. Bartonella henselae, mikrobakterium atypical and tuberculosis and Toxoplasma.Malignancies such as leukemia, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarkoma and lymphoma can also cause lymphadenopathy. Other diseases are one of the symptoms are lymphadenopathy is kawasaki, collagen disease, lupus. The drugs also cause a general lymphadenopathy. Lymphadenopathy dairy neck region were reported after immunization (DPT, polio or typhoid).Each cause can not be determined just from the enlarged lymph nodes only, but of other symptoms that accompany enlargement of the lymph nodes.Clinical symptomsDiagnosis of lymphadenopathy requires anamnesis (interview), physical examination, and investigations when necessary. In the history can be obtained:anamnesis DescriptionLocation of enlarged lymph nodes Enlarged lymph nodes on both sides of the neck of a sudden is usually caused by a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. In Kawasaki disease infection by enlargement of lymph nodes generally only one side. If long lasting (chronic) can be attributed to infection by mycobacteria, Toxoplasma, or citomegalovirus ebstein barr virus.Accompanying symptoms (symptoms) Fever, sore throat and cough directed to cause upper respiratory tract infections. Fever, night sweats and weight loss leading to tuberculosis infection or malignancy. Cause unexplained fever, fatigue and joint pain increases the likelihood of disease by collagen disease or serum (serum sickness-plus history of drugs or blood products).History of present illness and past presence of inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillectomy) previously directed to infection by streptococcus; abrasions on the face or neck or signs of infection Staphylococcal infection causes direct; and the presence of tooth and gum infections can also lead to anaerobic bacterial infection. Previous blood transfusions can lead to citomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus or HIV.The use of drugs Lymphadenopathy may occur after the use of drugs such as phenytoin and isoniazid. Other drugs such as allupurinol, atenolol, captopril, carbamazepine, cefalosporin, gold, hidralazine, penicillin, pirimetamine, quinidine, sulfonamides, sulindac). Enlargement because the drug is generally the whole body (generalized)Exposure to infections Exposure / previous contact to people with upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis streptococcal, or tuberculosis helped direct cause of lymphadenopathy.History of travel or work trip to areas of Africa could result in exposed tripanosomiasis, people working in the forest can be exposed to tularemiaPhysical examinationPhysical examinationIn general malnutrition or stunted growth that leads to chronic (long running) such as tuberculosis, malignancy or immune system disordersCharacteristics of lymph nodes and surrounding area must be considered. Lymph nodes should be measured for subsequent comparison. It should be noted the presence or absence tenderness, redness, warmth at the touch, can be freely moved or can not be moved, if there are fluctuations, whether hard or chewy consistency.• Size: normal when the diameter of 0.5 cm and groin> 1.5 cm, said to be abnormal)
• Tenderness: the process is generally caused by inflammation or bleeding
• Consistency: hard as a rock lead to malignancies, solid rubber-like leads to lymphoma; software directs the process of infection; fluctuating directs the occurrence of abscesses / pernanahan
• Annealing / clustered: some nodes that attach to and move together when actuated. Can be caused by tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, malignancy.
Enlarged lymph nodes of the neck posterior (back) are in rubella infection and mononucleosis. Supraclavicular neck or the back of the KGB has a risk of malignancy is greater than the enlargement of the anterior part of the KGB.
Enlarged neck lymph nodes accompanied by other regions are also often caused by viral infection.
Malignancy, drugs, collagen diseases generally associated Degnan generalized enlargement of lymph nodes.
On the enlargement of the KGB by a viral infection, the KGB is generally bilateral (two sisi-kiri/kiri and right), soft and movable. If there is infection by bacteria, usually glandular pain in emphasis, either one side or two sides and can be volatile and can be driven. The existence of the redness and the temperature is hotter than the surrounding directing bacterial infection and the presence of volatile indicate the occurrence of an abscess. When lymphadenopathy due to malignancy signs of inflammation did not exist, the KGB hard and can not be driven (Degnan bound tissue underneath)
In infekswi by mycobacteria enlarged lymph-month run weekly, although it can be sudden, the KGB became volatile and above the skin becomes thinner, and can rupture and form bridges of the overlying skin.
Signs of an accompanying
(Signed) The existence of a red throat, white patches on the tonsils, red spots on the ceiling directs infection by streptococcus bacteria. The existence of membrane on the walls of the throat, tonsils, hard palate is removed and when removed bleeding, swelling of the soft tissues of the neck (bull neck) leading to infection by the diphtheria bacteria. Pharyngitis, rash and enlargement of the spleen lead to Epstein Barr virus infection. An inflammation of the lining of the eyes and Koplik spots leads to measles. Presence of pale, bleeding spots (red spots are not lost Degnan emphasis), bruises that do not clear the cause, and an enlarged liver and spleen leads to leukomia. Long fever that does not respond to fever medicine; redness of the eye; inflammation of the throat, "strawberry tongue"; changes on the hands and feet (swelling, redness on the palms of the hands and feet); lymphadenopathy one side (unilateral) leads to Kawasaki disease.
Flow Diagnosis
taken from the RCH
Differential diagnosis:
Lump in the throat that is often misinterpreted as an enlarged neck lymph nodes:
• • Mumps: parotits gland enlargement due to viral infection, the angle of mandible may disappear because of swelling
Thyroglossal duct cyst • •: in the midline and moves with swallowing
• • Dermoid cyst: a lump in the midline can be solid or filled with fluid
• • Hemangioma: abnormalities of the blood vessels so that the resulting tangle of blood vessels contain lumps, red or bluish.
Management of cervical lymph nodes enlargement are based on the cause. Many cases of enlarged lymph nodes neck heal by itself and does not require any treatment other than observation. Failure to shrink after 4-6 weeks can be an indication for lymph node biopsy performed. Biopsy was done when there are signs and symptoms that lead to keganasa, KGB persist or increase in size with the right treatment, or diagnosis can not be enforced.

Pembesarab KGB in children is usually caused by viruses and heal itself, although the KGB enlargement can take place weekly. Treatment of the KGB by a bacterial infection (lymphadenitis) is a 10-day oral antibiotic in the first 2 days of monitoring flucloxacillin 25mg/kgBB four times a day. If there is an allergic reaction to penicillin group antibiotic cephalexin can be given 25mg/kg (up to 500mg) three times daily or erythromycin 15mg/kg (up to 500mg) three times a day.

If the cause is a mycobacteria tuberculosis lymphadenopathy then given anti-tuberculosis drugs for 9-12 months. When caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis will require removal of lymph nodes are infected or when surgery is impossible or not optimal given class of macrolide antibiotics and antimikobakterium. Investigations are not necessary if acute lymphadenopathy, but if it lasts> 2minggu be examined blood serology for Epstein Barr virus, citomegalovirus, hiv, toxoplasma; Mantoux test, chest X-rays, biopsies, are all adapted to the existing signs and symptoms and the most direct diagnosis.
Enlarged lymph nodes neck area are common and generally harmless. Observation is the main thing. The diagnosis obtained from the interview physical examination and investigations if necessary. If the diagnosis could not be determined and not get the signs and symptoms toward malignancy can doibservasi daulu for 3-4 weeks.

Thursday, July 5, 2012

What is Racing Motor Oil

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Just what is racing motor oil? With this article I hope to dispel several rumors and disbeliefs. First lets consider that there is a place for racing motor oil. Lets look at it is two very different arenas. In the Professional Arena and in the Sportsman Arena.

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In the professional arena with multi million dollar sponsorships, a .00 quart of oil is not going to make or break a race team. However in the professional ranks there are those who believe that a particular brand or oil, such as Valvoline, Quaker State, Mobile One, or Royal Purple, and believe that it is the best oil available and will only use that particular brand. Again remember this. Many teams use a particular type and brand of Motor Oil, be it mineral based or Synthetic Motor Oil or because of a sponsorship package they have with the oil distributor.

In NASCAR, they are concerned about one thing. That engine lasting for one race, be a 400, 500 or 600 mile event. After that race the engine is not a concern to that team any longer. After the race that engine is sent back to the engine shop for a total rebuild and dynamometer testing. Trying to tell that team owner that one brand of racing oil is better than the other or will make their engine last longer will not sell a lot of oil.

In NHRA and IHRA Drag Racing, again in the professional ranks, engines are torn down after each ¼ mile run. Most of these teams do believe in the type racing oil they use and will only use that brand. After each run the racing oil is changed. In Drag Racing, there are several different types of fuel. Many exotic fuels need a special type of racing oil to prevent dilution of the oil because of the fuel used.

In the Sportsman Arena, which is where I am, racing oil is a very big issue for us. We want a dependable oil for our race car. In dirt track and asphalt oval racing, teams will continue to use the same engine for a specific number of races. After each race they perform many different checks to check the serviceability of the engine and continue to run that engine. Most often the racing oil is changed after each race. There is probably equal number of teams running synthetic racing motor oil as those who run regular racing oil. Brand name is based upon who owns, or builds the engines for their cars.

In Sportsman Drag Racing, we will run the same engine for the entire season baring major engine failures. Checks are performed after each race to obtain a base line as to how long they run that engine. Many times the racing oil is changed after each race. But consider this: eight to ten runs of 1/8 of a mile is not a lot of miles so we tend to run the engine the entire year or season or until failure. In Sportsman Drag Racing, the racing motor oil is a very big issue. We want maximum performance out of our engine every run, or trip down the track.

Racing Oil, including Synthetic Racing Oil has earned its place on the shelf and crankcases of many Sportsman Racers. While most all motor oils (regular motor oil) can and are used in the Sportsman Racing Arena we all tend to use the Racing Motor Oil of our choice.

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How the Oil and Gas Industry Benefits From GPS Fleet Tracking Systems

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The oil and gas industry relies on drivers who deliver products safely and efficiently. A GPS vehicle tracking system gives managers real-time information about their drivers to:

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• Improve safety, which lowers insurance costs.
• Help make informed decisions that improve customer service.
• Lower business costs to stay competitive without sacrificing services.

Improving Safety with Oil and Gas GPS Systems

GPS devices make it easy for managers to track the locations and behaviors of their drivers. This helps enforce safety standards because you can

• Identify drivers who speed or drive haphazardly.
• Identify drivers who leave designated routes or make unauthorized stops.
• Help drivers avoid heavy traffic and accidents.
• Alert management when vehicles break down or in trouble.
• Warn drivers about weather conditions-tornados, hurricanes, fierce storms-that can endanger company vehicles.

GPS Vehicle Tracking Systems Help Improve Customer Service

Oil and gas industry GPS tracker systems can also improve customer service. With a GPS tracker you know more about your fleet's activities. This helps you make more informed choices that will benefit the services your clients receive. Some of the benefits of using GPS trackers include

• Knowing where every vehicle is located.
• Keeping drivers on task.
• Finding efficient routes that reduce delivery times and increase productivity.
• Providing real-time updates to let clients know when deliveries will arrive.

Lower Business Costs with GPS Trackers

Oil and gas GPS systems let you take better control of your fleet to help lower business costs and stay competitive without sacrificing services. Using GPS trackers allows you to save money by

• Reducing idling time, travel time and distance by choosing efficient routes, which saves fuel costs.
• Avoiding tickets and higher insurance costs by making sure drivers obey traffic laws, and providing route records to fight erroneous traffic citations.
• Coordinating your fleet's efforts to perform tasks more efficiently.
• Producing route histories including stops/starts reports to document when drivers arrive, when they leave and how much time they spend at each site.
• Track hazardous materials to conform to state and government regulations.

Businesses in the oil and gas industry rely on new technologies to stay competitive. GPS vehicle trackers let you make instant, informed decisions as conditions and situations change. They allow you to act decisively during emergencies or when priorities shift.

By allowing you improve safety, lower costs, improve customer service and act decisively, an oil and gas GPS vehicle tracking system helps improve your reputation and remain fiercely competitive.

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How to Find the Best Oil Change Coupons

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Change Locations - How to Find the Best Oil Change Coupons.The content is nice quality and helpful content, That is new is that you simply never knew before that I do know is that I have discovered. Before the distinctive. It's now near to enter destination How to Find the Best Oil Change Coupons.

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Change Locations ! Again, for I know. Ready to share new things that are useful. You and your friends.

Recently, with television series' and news stories about extreme coupon clippers, the act of searching for coupons has gained huge amounts of attention. You do not need to be a dedicated, rabid bargain hunter with a filing system for the deals you have found to benefit from the money-off deals available in many locations. It can sometimes be a little complicated to find which is the best deal available at a time and which can be a false economy. There are special offers and coupons for a huge variety of products and services, from oranges to oil change coupons you can find a great deal on practically anything.

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How is How to Find the Best Oil Change Coupons

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A large number of coupons come directly to you; mailed advertising circulars or direct coupon mailings will come to your mailbox as often as a couple of times a week. These packs of deals will, in many cases, have some of the best coupons available and a careful look at these circulars will allow you to find some great deals. For oil change coupons and others you should consider looking on the Internet. Your local oil change location even it is not one of the large regional or national chains will often advertise specific special offers or deals. Also recently, with the increasing popularity of the practice and the poor state of the international economy, people who would never consider presenting coupons in a store have started to bargain hunt in a serious way.

If you are looking for an oil change coupon for a particular specific manufacturer or oil change location then the best option is to search for these on one of the various coupon aggregation websites that are becoming more and more common on the internet. There are also newer services that use bulk buying of special offers and sell deeply discounted services for various local businesses. These types of web pages do not normally have coupons up for long periods of time so you will need to be active in looking for specific oil change coupons. It is important that you carefully check the fine print for any particular restrictions on service or the coupon only being valid or available during certain periods of the day.

One of the most valuable tips that experienced coupon users give is to try to double up on your savings, using manufacturer coupons to coincide with specific store sales events can mean that you save large amounts of money on a purchase. Experienced coupon users have found that at some points they are getting items for almost no cost. If you check coupon circulars, the internet or local press often the manufacturers advertising with coupons will shortly be followed with larger stores offering discounts as part of an enticement package for certain brands.

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