Thursday, September 27, 2012

What is Foot and Mouth Disease

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Foot and mouth disease (FMD): 

HistoryIn animals, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) typically takes a very rapidly progressing course. The disease is easily transmitted, diagnosed in an affected animal population most all animals. Mortality depends on the development of foot-and-mouth disease and the age of affected animals:_ In adult animals, the foot-and-mouth disease run benign, the mortality rate in this case is less than 5 percent._ For juveniles, the foot-and-mouth disease is often fatal and for which the mortality rate is up to 70 percent. This is especially true for cattle: The calves usually die of acute heart failure or from the effects of myocarditis.In the rare cases where a person get infected with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease, the course of the infection is completely harmless. Often makes infection with FMD virus not noticeable. If mild symptoms of foot and mouth disease occur, they sound even without treatment after a few days again. In children, however, affect the general condition is usually stronger than in adults. 

Foot and mouth disease (FMD): Therapy

The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in humans does not usually require treatment, if at all signs of infection occur, they sound even without treatment after a few days again. Only in isolated cases measures are used to relieve the symptoms of the viral disease. In any case, heals the human infection from consequences.Animals with foot-and-mouth disease (especially hoofed animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, deer and fallow deer), however, are seriously ill - and particularly young animals often die from the infection. A cure for foot-and-mouth disease in animals is not possible: a therapy that would be effective against the causative FMDV is not available. As a rule, you kill the animals involved in the first suspicion of foot-and-mouth disease immediately to prevent spread of the disease - even when adult animals the disease usually survive. 

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) Diagnosis

 In the rare cases where a person get infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the mild symptoms for a diagnosis alone are usually not enough. Therefore, it is important to tell the doctor about previous contact with infected animals or animal products. The actual diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease is finally proof of the causal FMD virus from the blister fluid and the corresponding antibodies in the blood. The human disease is not notifiable.''When infected with foot-and-mouth disease animals however provide the typical blisters in the mouth area, the flashy salivation, high fever and loss of appetite strong evidence for the diagnosis. Again you can make a diagnosis by pathogen and antibody detection. Since foot-and-mouth disease in animals is one of the notifiable diseases, the presence of the foot must be immediately reported in an animal.'''' 

Foot and mouth disease (FMD): Symptoms

 In animals, causes the foot and mouth disease (FMD) and very severe symptoms may also run fatal - especially in young animals. This affects almost all cloven-hoofed animals (such as cattle, sheep, pigs, and goats). For humans, the viral disease is not dangerous.''All animals with foot-and-mouth disease called canker sores develop as typical symptoms (ie, small blisters on the mucous membranes in the mouth area) and at the same time and bubbles between the claws. In dairy animals that are infected with the FMD virus, the udder and teats are affected by the formation of bubbles - milk production drops abruptly.''Below is spreading the foot-and-mouth disease from infected animals in the esophagus to the stomach. The symptoms of viral infection results in an altered animal behavior: The affected animals have severe pain and stop eating. Because of the blisters on the mouth are the animals do not show more or when standing strong pain responses. Sheep with FMD start lame pigs and move only slipping from its place.''In the rare cases in which people infected by close contact with infected animals with FMD virus, often only antibodies are detectable, without any signs of infection. The foot-and-mouth disease in humans but can also cause mild symptoms such as blisters. These occur (like a herpes infection of the mouth), especially on the lips, buccal mucosa or tongue, but also on the palms and soles. Headache and body aches and mild fever are also possible. The symptom of foot-and-mouth disease children feel in their general condition usually affects more than adults. However, the disease heals always consequences.''

 Foot and mouth disease (FMD): CausesPathogen

The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has its origins in an infection with a specific virus: The virus carries the viral disease the German name foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). It belongs to the genus Aphtoviren (aphthae = fluid-filled blisters) from the group of picornaviruses (pico = very small). Picornaviruses are the smallest known RNA viruses having a diameter of about 20 to 30 millimeters. The FMD virus can kill by heat with temperatures over 56 degrees Celsius. In addition, the FMD virus is sensitive to acid. 

Routes of infection

 For foot-and-mouth disease come as causes various routes of infection are: for to a the transmission of the disease through lubrication and contact infections, on the other hand is the FMD virus transmitted by droplet infection.''Those responsible for the foot-and-mouth disease viruses are contained in the small fluid-filled sacs (canker sores), resulting in infected animals. The vesicle content is so contagious. When the bubble burst infectious, they unleashed the virus. Also in the saliva of infected animals (and thus in the air) and in all other excretions are found the FMD virus. Many causes for its spread are: for Possible routes of infection lead on animal products such as milk and meat, on food, on the clothing of people on vehicle tires, tools and sometimes even on the air, and of course by the infected animals themselves. Other uninfected animals take the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease mainly through the nose and mouth area - so orally. Even people who come closely into contact with the pathogen (such as Melk, butcher or vets) can be infected with isolated cases of foot-and-mouth disease (which is not dangerous, but for those concerned). Thus, the viral disease is a so-called zoonotic (ie transmissible between human and animal disease). 

Incubation period

When the foot-and-mouth disease, the incubation period (the time between infection and the onset of symptoms):* in cattle 2 to 7 days* in pigs 2 to 12 days* in goats and sheep 2 to 14 days* when people 2 to 18 days 

Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease

The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the farmers have long been known as a threatening disease. Previously, the outbreaks of foot and mouth disease were mostly localized, since humans and animals were less mobile: Both private travel as well as the import and export of animals were rare. Moreover, people used to go to the foot-and-mouth disease at different: In the 18th Century ensured farmers in outbreak ensure that all the animals as soon as possible simultaneously infected. In this way they reached a time limit on the disease. The deaths of the animals they took into account, as this was still better than a very lengthy insidious disease, at the end just as high animal losses were lost.The outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in an extremely global and mobile world, however, has devastating consequences: 

Federal Republic of Germany

In the Federal Republic of Germany, there were in the years 1950 to 1988 have been outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Only since 1989, the Federal Republic of Germany is considered free of FMD. The most severe outbreaks of the disease took place in the years 1951, 1952, 1962 and in 1965. These outbreaks were respectively 154,404, 64,372, 11,265 and 19,942 last affected farms. With an annual nationwide vaccination of endangered animals managed the disease in Europe to get a grip. In 1991 the European Union has been declared free of FMD and stopped the vaccination program.'' 


Were several devastating outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is also available in the UK: At the height of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the years 1966/67 sick day up to 80 animals. A total of 2,346 farms with 433,990 cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were affected, their invariable killing was necessary.The foot-and-mouth disease broke out again in the UK in early 2001 and spread rapidly across the country. Weeks of quarantine in many parts of the country were the result. Particularly depressing were numerous bonfires where they burned several 100,000 animals. FMD spread further to Ireland, and France to the Netherlands. The Federal Republic of Germany was spared for some inexplicable reason. In early May ebbed to foot-and-mouth disease and disappeared even from the media coverage.TaiwanThe foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) spread in Taiwan in 1997, within a few days from exploding over the island. A total of 6,134 herds with more than 4.5 million pigs, of which 1 million infected, affected. Since that time, the whole trade of pigs in Taiwan has collapsed almost completely. The economic consequences are immense so far. 

Foot and mouth disease (FMD): Definition

The concept of foot and mouth disease (FMD) designated by definition an acute, highly contagious viral disease, which almost exclusively hoofed animals (such as sheep, pigs, cattle, goats, buffalo, red and fallow deer) concerns. In the infected animals develop fluid-filled blisters, called canker sores. They are comparable to a herpes infection in the mouth.''As the epidemic has devastating foot-and-mouth disease effects on livestock and thus. Also on the economic situation of farmers Health, the foot-and-mouth disease in humans is, however, completely harmless. Even meat and milk and milk products of diseased animals can be eaten safely. Only in isolated cases - if a close contact with infectious agents (such as in milkers, butchers and veterinarians) - the foot-and-mouth disease transmits to humans. Thus it is one of the so-called zoonoses. Sufferers develop but no or very mild symptoms.''The foot-and-mouth disease in animals must be reported to the Animal Disease Act and the Regulation of FMD. The duty of disclosure is not only at the onset of the disease, but even in pure suspicion of a possible case of illness. So it is possible to fight an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease early, before the disease continues to spread. Other notifiable diseases include anthrax, avian flu, swine fever and rabies.'' 

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

For humans, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is not dangerous. Importance of the disease is particularly devastating as the disease: Especially for hoofed animals - including sheep, pigs, cattle, goats, buffalo, red and fallow deer - FMD is highly contagious.''Trigger of foot-and-mouth disease, the so-called foot and mouth virus: The infected animals develop blisters (called aphthous ulcers) on the mucous membranes in the mouth area as well as bubbles and between the claws, in dairy animals are also affected the udder and teats. The causative viruses contained in these bubbles and can spread by contact lubricants and infections as well as by aerosol. For animals, the foot-and-mouth disease is very painful. In adult animals, they can run benign, for young animals, it is often fatal. An effective therapy is not available.''The foot-and-mouth disease is next to mad cow disease (BSE) as the economically most dramatic animal disease at all: you can at cloven cause devastating epidemics, most recently in 2001 in the UK, where they burned in the course of the eruption hundreds of thousands of animals. The foot-and-mouth disease is a communicable disease of animals and humans (known as zoonosis), but does no human health threat if it represents in very rare cases leads to a transfer of the responsibility of FMD virus to humans (eg Melker , butcher or veterinarians), triggers the infection in people with no or only very mild symptoms.''The foot-and-mouth disease is notifiable to the Animal Diseases Act and the FMD Regulation: display is not only the outbreak, but just the suspicion of possible foot-and-mouth disease. Other notifiable diseases include the swine fever and rabies. The purpose of this requirement is to detect an outbreak early and successful fight to before the disease spreads. 

Foot and mouth disease (FMD): Prevention

As animal disease foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has devastating effects on livestock. Which can be prevented only by the outbreak of the viral disease in a herd, to take measures to prevent its spread. Such action made in Germany after the Animal Diseases Act, and of the emerging ordinance, regulation of FMD. The measures may include:_ Complete closure of the affected farm (yard): Depending on where you set up the operation around an approximately three-mile restricted area with appropriate access restrictions for people and animals. If necessary, you can order the court also set up a monitoring area of ??ten kilometers, and if necessary an expanded protection zone._ Disinfection of persons and objects: As the agent of foot-and-mouth disease is sensitive to acid (FMDV), you can help him by citric or formic acid, formaldehyde or disable. Disinfection may be achieved by disinfection baths or mats._ Ban on imports of possible virus carriers: This ban may cover all possible virus carriers to food for personal consumption.''Since it only in individual cases in close contact with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease is a transmission to humans, you can prevent infection by listening in dealing with animals on hygiene. If professional reasons avoid close contact with infected with the FMD virus animals can not, but you have to fear from a contagion nothing.'' 


Against three well-known and widespread species of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were made for the prevention of epidemics to 1992 everywhere in the European Union vaccination of endangered animals. This measure has led to the known disease types in Europe have virtually disappeared. Since the forms of foot-and-mouth disease - similar to the flu virus - over time change and a vaccine is effective only when he is designed specifically for their disease strain out, has since been omitted coverage with the vaccine in the EU. Another reason for the abolition of the vaccination area is the fact that vaccinated and infected animals can be distinguished due to the formation of antibodies is not clear. However, vaccines are available, their use in an emergency - is allowed - in an outbreak to protect animals in the surrounding area.''

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